90377 Sedna

Sedna
Sedna PRC2004-14d.jpg
Sedna as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope
Discovery  [1]
Discovered by Michael Brown
Chad Trujillo
David Rabinowitz
Discovery date 14 November 2003
Designations
MPC designation (90377) Sedna
Pronunciation ə/
Named after
Sedna (Inuit goddess)
2003 VB12
TNO [2] · detached
sednoid [3]
Orbital characteristics [2]
Epoch 13 January 2016 ( JD 2457400.5)
Uncertainty parameter 2
Observation arc 9240 days (25.30 yr)
Aphelion ≈ 936 AU (Q) [4]
1.4×1011 km
0.015  ly
Perihelion 76.0917±0.0087 AU (q)
1.1423×1010 km
506.8 AU [5] [4]
7.573×1010 km
Eccentricity 0.85491±0.00029
≈ 11400  yr [4] [a]
1.04 km/s
358.163°±0.0054°
0° 0m 0.31s / day (n)
Inclination 11.92872° (i)
144.546° (Ω)
311.29°±0.014° (ω)
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 995±80 km
(thermophysical model)
1060±100 km
(std. thermal model) [7]
10.273  h (0.4280  d)
10.3 h ± 30% [2] [8]
0.32±0.06 [7]
Temperature ≈ 12 K (see note)
( red) B−V=1.24; V−R=0.78 [9]
21.1 [10]
20.5 ( perihelic) [11]
1.83±0.05 [7]
1.6 [2]

90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was, as of 2015, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune. Spectroscopy has revealed that Sedna's surface composition is similar to that of some other trans-Neptunian objects, being largely a mixture of water, methane, and nitrogen ices with tholins. Its surface is one of the reddest among Solar System objects. It is most likely a dwarf planet.

For most of its orbit, it is even farther from the Sun than at present, with its aphelion estimated at 937 AU [4] (31 times Neptune's distance), making it one of the most distant-known objects in the Solar System other than long-period comets. [b] [c]

Sedna has an exceptionally long and elongated orbit, taking approximately 11,400 years to complete and a distant point of closest approach to the Sun at 76 AU. These facts have led to much speculation about its origin. The Minor Planet Center currently places Sedna in the scattered disc, a group of objects sent into highly elongated orbits by the gravitational influence of Neptune. This classification has been contested because Sedna never comes close enough to Neptune to have been scattered by it, leading some astronomers to informally refer to it as the first known member of the inner Oort cloud. Others speculate that it might have been tugged into its current orbit by a passing star, perhaps one within the Sun's birth cluster (an open cluster), or even that it was captured from another star system. Another hypothesis suggests that its orbit may be evidence for a large planet beyond the orbit of Neptune. [13]

Astronomer Michael E. Brown, co-discoverer of Sedna and the dwarf planets Eris, Haumea, and Makemake, thinks that it is the most scientifically important trans-Neptunian object found to date, because understanding its unusual orbit is likely to yield valuable information about the origin and early evolution of the Solar System. [14] [15]

History

Discovery

Sedna ( provisionally designated 2003 VB12) was discovered by Michael Brown ( Caltech), Chad Trujillo ( Gemini Observatory), and David Rabinowitz ( Yale University) on 14 November 2003. The discovery formed part of a survey begun in 2001 with the Samuel Oschin telescope at Palomar Observatory near San Diego, California using Yale's 160-megapixel Palomar Quest camera. On that day, an object was observed to move by 4.6 arcseconds over 3.1 hours relative to stars, which indicated that its distance was about 100 AU. Follow-up observations in November–December 2003 with the SMARTS telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile as well as with the Tenagra IV telescope at the Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea in Hawaii revealed that the object was moving along a distant highly eccentric orbit. Later, the object was precovered on older images made by the Samuel Oschin telescope as well as on images from the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking consortium. These previous positions expanded its known orbital arc and allowed a more precise calculation of its orbit. [13]

Naming

Brown initially nicknamed Sedna " The Flying Dutchman", or "Dutch", after a legendary ghost ship, because its slow movement had initially masked its presence from his team. [16] For an official name for the object, Brown settled on "Sedna," a name from Inuit mythology, which Brown chose partly because the Inuit were the closest polar culture to his home in Pasadena, and partly because the name, unlike Quaoar, would be easily pronounceable. [17] On his website, he wrote, "Our newly discovered object is the coldest, most distant place known in the Solar System, so we feel it is appropriate to name it in honor of Sedna, the Inuit goddess of the sea, who is thought to live at the bottom of the frigid Arctic Ocean." [18] Brown also suggested to the International Astronomical Union's (IAU) Minor Planet Center that any future objects discovered in Sedna's orbital region should also be named after entities in arctic mythologies. [18] The team made the name "Sedna" public before the object had been officially numbered. [19] Brian Marsden, the head of the Minor Planet Center, said that such an action was a violation of protocol, and that some members of the IAU might vote against it. [20] No objection was raised to the name, and no competing names were suggested. The IAU's Committee on Small Body Nomenclature accepted the name in September 2004, [21] and also considered that, in similar cases of extraordinary interest, it might in the future allow names to be announced before they were officially numbered. [19]

Other Languages
العربية: سدنا 90377
azərbaycanca: 90377 Sedna
беларуская: (90377) Седна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сэдна
български: 90377 Седна
Boarisch: Sedna
català: (90377) Sedna
čeština: Sedna (planetka)
Deutsch: (90377) Sedna
Ελληνικά: 90377 Σέντνα
español: (90377) Sedna
Esperanto: 90377 Sedno
euskara: (90377) Sedna
français: (90377) Sedna
Gaeilge: Sedna
galego: Sedna
한국어: 90377 세드나
Հայերեն: (90377) Սեդնա
hrvatski: 90377 Sedna
Ido: Sednao
Bahasa Indonesia: 90377 Sedna
italiano: 90377 Sedna
Basa Jawa: 90377 Sedna
коми: Седна
Latina: 90377 Sedna
latviešu: Sedna
lietuvių: Sedna
lumbaart: Sedna
magyar: 90377 Sedna
македонски: 90377 Седна
मराठी: सेडना
Bahasa Melayu: 90377 Sedna
Napulitano: Sedna
norsk nynorsk: 90377 Sedna
occitan: (90377) Sedna
پنجابی: سیڈنا
português: 90377 Sedna
română: Sedna
русский: (90377) Седна
sicilianu: Sedna
Simple English: 90377 Sedna
slovenčina: 90377 Sedna
slovenščina: 90377 Sedna
српски / srpski: Седна
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 90377 Sedna
svenska: 90377 Sedna
தமிழ்: 90377 செட்னா
Türkçe: 90377 Sedna
українська: 90377 Седна
Tiếng Việt: 90377 Sedna
文言: 塞德娜