67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko
Comet 67P on 19 September 2014 NavCam mosaic.jpg
Greyscale photograph of Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko taken by the Rosetta spacecraft
Discovery
Discovered by Klim Ivanovich Churyumov
Svetlana Ivanovna Gerasimenko
Discovery site Alma-Ata, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
Discovery date 20 September 1969
Designations
1969 R1, 1969 IV, 1969h, 1975 P1, 1976 VII, 1975i, 1982 VIII, 1982f, 1989 VI, 1988i [1]
Orbital characteristics [1]
Epoch 10 August 2014 ( JD 2456879.5)
Aphelion 5.6829 AU
     (850,150,000 km; 528,260,000 mi)
Perihelion 1.2432 AU
     (185,980,000 km; 115,560,000 mi)
3.4630 AU
     (518,060,000 km; 321,910,000 mi)
Eccentricity 0.64102
6.44 yr
303.71°
Inclination 7.0405°
50.147°
12.780°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions
  • Large lobe: 4.1 km × 3.3 km × 1.8 km
    (2.5 mi × 2.1 mi × 1.1 mi) [2]
  • Small lobe: 2.6 km × 2.3 km × 1.8 km
    (1.6 mi × 1.4 mi × 1.1 mi) [2]
Volume 18.7 km3 (4.5 cu mi) [3]
Mass (9.982±0.003)×1012 kg [3]
Mean density
0.533 ± 0.006 g/cm3 [3] [4]
     (0.01926 ± 0.00022 lb/cu in)
est. 1 m/s (3 ft/s) [5]
12.4043±0.0007 h [6]
52° [2]
North pole right ascension
69.3° [2]
North pole declination
64.1° [2]
Albedo 0.06 [2]
Surface temp. min mean max
Kelvin 180 230
Celsius −93 −43
Fahrenheit −135 −45

67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (abbreviated as 67P or 67P/C-G) is a Jupiter-family comet, [7] originally from the Kuiper belt, [8] with a current orbital period of 6.45 years, [1] a rotation period of approximately 12.4 hours [6] and a maximum velocity of 135,000 km/h (38 km/s; 84,000 mph). [9] Churyumov–Gerasimenko is approximately 4.3 by 4.1 km (2.7 by 2.5 mi) at its longest and widest dimensions. [10] It was first observed on photographic plates in 1969 by Soviet astronomers Klim Ivanovych Churyumov and Svetlana Ivanovna Gerasimenko, after whom it is named. It came to perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) on 13 August 2015. [11] [12] [13] [14]

Churyumov–Gerasimenko was the destination of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission, launched on 2 March 2004. [15] [16] [17] Rosetta rendezvoused with Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 6 August 2014 [18] [19] and entered orbit on 10 September 2014. [20] Rosetta's lander, Philae, landed on the comet's surface on 12 November 2014, becoming the first spacecraft to land on a comet nucleus. [21] [22] [23] On 30 September 2016, the Rosetta spacecraft ended its mission by landing on the comet in its Ma'at region. [24] [25]

Discovery

Churyumov–Gerasimenko was discovered in 1969 by Klim Ivanovich Churyumov of the Kiev University's Astronomical Observatory, [26] who examined a photograph that had been exposed for comet Comas Solà by Svetlana Ivanovna Gerasimenko on 11 September 1969 at the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute, near Alma-Ata (now Almaty), the then-capital city of Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union. Churyumov found a cometary object near the edge of the plate, but assumed that this was comet Comas Solà. [27]

After returning to his home institute in Kiev, Churyumov examined all the photographic plates more closely. On 22 October, about a month after the photograph was taken, he discovered that the object could not be Comas Solà, because it was about 1.8 degrees off the expected position. Further scrutiny produced a faint image of Comas Solà at its expected position on the plate, thus proving the other object to be a different body. [27]

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Камэта Чурумава — Герасіменка
Bahasa Indonesia: 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 67P/Čurjumov–Gerasimenko