2nd millennium

New WorldAmerican RevolutionFrench RevolutionBlack DeathNapoleon BonaparteTelephoneAeroplaneMoon landingAtomic BombLight BulbGutenberg Bible
From left, clockwise: in 1492, Italian navigator Christopher Columbus arrives in America; the American Revolution; the French Revolution; the Atomic Bomb from World War II; an alternate source of light, the light bulb; for the first time, a human being sets foot on the moon in 1969 during the Apollo 11 moon mission; aeroplanes become the most-used way of transport though the skies; Napoleon Bonaparte, in the early 19th century, affects France and Europe with expansionism and modernization; Alexander Graham Bell's telephone; in 1348, the Black Death kills in just two years over 100 million people worldwide, and over half of Europe. (Background: An excerpt from the Gutenberg Bible, the first major book printed in the West using movable type, in the 1450s)

The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001, of the Julian calendar and ended on December 31, 2000[note 1] of the Gregorian calendar. It is distinct from the millennium known as the 1000s which began on January 1, 1000, and ended on December 31, 1999.

It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire, the Renaissance, the Baroque era, the early Modern Age, the age of Enlightenment, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 19th and 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World wars and nuclear weapons) were offset by growing peace movements, the United Nations, plus doctors and health workers crossing borders to treat injuries and disease, and the return of the Olympics as contest without combat.

Scientists prevailed in explaining intellectual freedom; humans took their first steps on the Moon during the 20th century; and new technology was developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of movable type, radio, television, and the internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to inform, educate and entertain billions of people by the end of the 20th century.

The Renaissance saw the beginning of the second migration of humans from Europe, Africa, and Asia to the Americas, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought.

The world population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium (from 310 million in 1000 to 600 million in 1700) and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding six billion in 2000. Consequently, unchecked human activity had considerable social and environmental consequences, giving rise to extreme poverty, climate change and biotic crisis.[1]


The Julian calendar was used in Europe at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar had adopted the Gregorian calendar by the end of it. So the end date is always calculated according to the Gregorian calendar, but the beginning date is usually according to the Julian calendar (or occasionally the proleptic Gregorian calendar).

Stephen Jay Gould argued that it is not possible to decide if the millennium ended on December 31, 1999, or December 31, 2000.[2] The Associated Press reported that the third millennium began on January 1, 2001, but also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000.[3]

The second millennium is generally viewed as beginning on January 1, 1000, and ending on December 31, 1999. Many public celebrations for the end of the second millennium were held on December 31, 1999 – January 1, 2000[4]—with a few people marking the end of the millennium a year later.

Other Languages
العربية: ألفية 2
asturianu: Mileniu II
Avañe'ẽ: II su ary
azərbaycanca: II minillik
български: 2 хилядолетие
bosanski: 2. milenij
brezhoneg: Eil milved
буряад: II мянган
català: Mil·lenni II
čeština: 2. tisíciletí
Ελληνικά: 2η χιλιετία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Secònd milèni
español: II milenio
Esperanto: 2-a jarmilo
euskara: 2. milurtekoa
føroyskt: 2. áratúsund
français: IIe millénaire
Gàidhlig: 2 mìle-bliadhna
한국어: 제2천년기
hrvatski: 2. tisućljeće
Bahasa Indonesia: Milenium ke-2
italiano: II millennio
ქართული: II ათასწლეული
Kiswahili: Milenia ya 2
Latina: Millennium 2
latviešu: 2. tūkstošgade
Lëtzebuergesch: 2. Joerdausend
lietuvių: 2 tūkstantmetis
Ligure: II millennio
la .lojban.: 1xyxyxymoi
magyar: 2. évezred
მარგალური: II ვითოშწანურა
Bahasa Melayu: Milenium ke-2
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ၂ ထောင်စုနှစ်
Nederlands: 2e millennium
日本語: 2千年紀
Napulitano: II millennio
Nordfriisk: 2. juardüüsen
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សហស្សវត្សរ៍ទី២
саха тыла: 2 -c тыһыынча сыл
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ngwagakete 2
Simple English: 2nd millennium
slovenčina: 2. tisícročie
slovenščina: 2. tisočletje
српски / srpski: 2. миленијум
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 2. milenijum
татарча/tatarça: 2 меңьеллык
Türkmençe: 2-nji müňýyllyk
українська: 2-ге тисячоліття
Tiếng Việt: Thiên niên kỷ 2
粵語: 第2千年
žemaitėška: 2 tūkstontmetis
中文: 2千纪