From left, clockwise: in 1492
navigator Christopher Columbus
arrives in America
; the American Revolution
; the French Revolution
; the Atomic Bomb
from World War II
; an alternate source of light, the light bulb
; for the first time, a human being sets foot on the moon
in 1969 during the Apollo 11
moon mission; aeroplanes
become the most-used way of transport though the skies; Napoleon Bonaparte
, in the early 19th century, affects France and Europe with expansionism
; Alexander Graham Bell
; in 1348, the Black Death
kills in just two years over 100 million people worldwide, and over half of Europe
. (Background: An excerpt from the Gutenberg Bible
, the first major book printed in the West using movable type, in the 1450s)
The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001, of the Julian calendar and ended on December 31, 2000[note 1] of the Gregorian calendar. It is distinct from the millennium known as the 1000s which began on January 1, 1000, and ended on December 31, 1999.
It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire, the Renaissance, the Baroque era, the early Modern Age, the age of Enlightenment, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 19th and 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World wars and nuclear weapons) were offset by growing peace movements, the United Nations, plus doctors and health workers crossing borders to treat injuries and disease, and the return of the Olympics as contest without combat.
Scientists prevailed in explaining intellectual freedom; humans took their first steps on the Moon during the 20th century; and new technology was developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of movable type, radio, television, and the internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to inform, educate and entertain billions of people by the end of the 20th century.
The Renaissance saw the beginning of the second migration of humans from Europe, Africa, and Asia to the Americas, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought.
The world population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium (from 310 million in 1000 to 600 million in 1700) and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding six billion in 2000. Consequently, unchecked human activity had considerable social and environmental consequences, giving rise to extreme poverty, climate change and biotic crisis.