21st century

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The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century of the Anno Domini era or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 2100.[1] It is the first century of the 3rd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 2000s which began on January 1, 2000 and will end on December 31, 2099.[2]

According to World Economic Forum, 65% of children entering primary school will end up in jobs or careers that currently do not yet exist.[3]According to the United Nations World Urbanization prospects, 60% of the world's human population are projected to live in megacities and megalopolises by 2030, and 70% by 2050. By 2040, more than 5 times the current global GDP are expected to be invested in urban infrastructure and its use.[4]

Transitions and changes

Shanghai has become a symbol of the recent economic boom of China.

The first years of the 21st century have thus far been marked by the rise of a global economy and Third World consumerism, mistrust in government, deepening global concern over terrorism and an increase in the power of private enterprise.[5][6][7] The Arab Spring of the early 2010s led to mixed outcomes in the Arab world.[8] The Digital Revolution which began around the 1980s also continues into the present.[9] Millennials and Generation Z come of age and rise to prominence in this century.[10]

In contemporary history, the 21st century essentially began in 1991 (the end of the Short Twentieth Century) with the United States as the sole superpower in the absence of the Soviet Union, while China began its rise and the BRICS countries aimed to create more balance in the global political and economic spectrum.[11][12]

Religion has been declining worldwide,[13] with an estimated 1.1 billion unaffiliated people in 2010.[14]

The completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 marks the continual rise of life sciences, making mankind's long-held dreams, such as curing cancer, more realistic.[15] By the 2010s, gene therapy, first performed somatically in late 1990 and heritably in 1996, showed promise but remains an experimental and emerging technology.[citation needed]

Assistive reproductive technology developed in the 1980s, such as polar body biopsy and preimplantation genetic diagnosis, has allowed for the selection of genetic traits, and, along with the advent of ultrasound, has increased the number of boys and decreased the number of girls in many countries, most notably in China and India but also in other Asian and eastern Europe countries.[16] This began in the late 1980s in China and India and after the fall of communism in the Balkans and Caucasus regions, concurrent with both the advent of capitalism in those countries and the widespread availability of reproductive technology.[16]

While digital telecommunications technology became widely used by most of the world, concerns about stress from the overuse of mobile phones, the Internet, and related technologies remain controversial.[17]

By 2013, about 80% of the world's population used mobile phones.[18] An estimated 33% owned personal computers in 2010,[19] and 46% used the Internet by 2016, compared to about 1% in 1996.[20]

The distribution of modern technology is not equal – in 2012 it was estimated that 1.5 billion people, or about 20% of the world's population still lacked access to electric power, with many more having only intermittent or poor access.[21]

A map of uncontacted tribes, around the start of the 21st century

The International Energy Agency estimates that 83% of the global population has access to electricity as of 2013 with the percentage projected to increase to 88% by 2030.[22][23]

Population

The world population was about 6.1 billion at the start of the 21st century and reached 7.5 billion in 2017. It is estimated to reach about 8.5 billion by the year 2030, and 9.37 billion by the year 2050.[24]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: 21ste eeu
Alemannisch: 21. Jahrhundert
العربية: القرن 21
aragonés: Sieglo XXI
asturianu: Sieglu XXI
azərbaycanca: XXI əsr
Bân-lâm-gú: 21 sè-kí
Basa Banyumasan: Abad kaping-21
башҡортса: XXI быуат
беларуская: XXI стагоддзе
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: XXI стагодзьдзе
भोजपुरी: 2100
български: 21 век
bosanski: 21. vijek
brezhoneg: XXIvet kantved
català: Segle XXI
Чӑвашла: XXI ĕмĕр
čeština: 21. století
Cymraeg: 21ain ganrif
davvisámegiella: 2000-lohku (jahkečuohti)
eesti: 21. sajand
Ελληνικά: 21ος αιώνας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: XXI sécol
эрзянь: XXI пинге
español: Siglo XXI
Esperanto: 21-a jarcento
estremeñu: Sigru XXI
euskara: XXI. mendea
Fiji Hindi: 21st century
føroyskt: 21. øld
français: XXIe siècle
Frysk: 21e iuw
Gaeilge: 21ú haois
Gaelg: 21oo eash
Gàidhlig: 21mh Linn
galego: Século XXI
贛語: 21世紀
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: 21 sṳ-ki
한국어: 21세기
հայերեն: 21-րդ դար
hrvatski: 21. stoljeće
Bahasa Indonesia: Abad ke-21
interlingua: Seculo 21
Ирон: XXI æнус
íslenska: 21. öldin
italiano: XXI secolo
עברית: המאה ה-21
Basa Jawa: Abad ping 21
ქართული: XXI საუკუნე
қазақша: XXI ғасыр
Kiswahili: Karne ya 21
коми: XXI нэм
Кыргызча: XXI кылым
Latina: Saeculum 21
latviešu: 21. gadsimts
Lëtzebuergesch: 21. Joerhonnert
лезги: XXI виш йис
lietuvių: XXI amžius
Ligure: XXI secolo
Lingua Franca Nova: Sentenio 21
la .lojban.: 20xyxymoi
lumbaart: Sécul XXI
magyar: 21. század
македонски: 21 век
Māori: Rautau 21
მარგალური: XXI ოშწანურა
Bahasa Melayu: Abad ke-21
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 21 sié-gī
монгол: 21-р зуун
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ၂၁ ရာစုနှစ်
Nederlands: 21e eeuw
Nedersaksies: 21e eeuw
日本語: 21世紀
Napulitano: XXI seculo
нохчийн: XXI бӀешо
Nordfriisk: 21. juarhunert
norsk nynorsk: 2000-talet
Nouormand: XXIe s.
Novial: 21esmi sekle
occitan: Sègle XXI
олык марий: XXI курым
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: XXI asr
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: 21ਵੀਂ ਸਦੀ
Перем Коми: XXI нэм
Plattdüütsch: 21. Johrhunnert
polski: XXI wiek
português: Século XXI
русиньскый: XXI. стороча
русский: XXI век
саха тыла: XXI үйэ
Seeltersk: 21. Jierhunnert
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ngwagakgolo 21
sicilianu: Sèculu XXI
Simple English: 21st century
slovenčina: 21. storočie
slovenščina: 21. stoletje
ślůnski: XXI stoleće
српски / srpski: 21. век
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 21. vijek
Basa Sunda: Abad ka-21
suomi: 2000-luku
svenska: 2000-talet
Taqbaylit: Lqern wis XXI
татарча/tatarça: XXI гасыр
Türkçe: 21. yüzyıl
Türkmençe: 21-nji asyr
тыва дыл: 2080 чылдар
удмурт: XXI даур
українська: XXI століття
Vahcuengh: 21 seiqgeij
vèneto: XXI secoło
Tiếng Việt: Thế kỷ 21
吴语: 21世纪
ייִדיש: 21סטער י"ה
粵語: 21世紀
Zeêuws: 21e eêuw
žemaitėška: XXI omžios
中文: 21世纪