2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests

2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests
March–June, July, August
Millions of protesters marching in white on 9 June (top) and in black 16 June (bottom).
Date31 March 2019 – ongoing
(4 months, 3 weeks and 1 day)
Various districts of Hong Kong and dozens of other cities abroad
Caused by
  • Complete withdrawal of the proposed extradition bill from the legislative process (as opposed to suspension)
  • Retraction of the characterisation of the protests as "riots"
  • Release and exoneration of arrested protesters
  • Establishment of an independent commission of inquiry into police behaviour
  • Universal suffrage for Legislative Council and Chief Executive elections
  • Resignation of Carrie Lam[2]
MethodsOccupations, sit-ins, civil disobedience, mobile street protests, flash mobs, Black Blocs, Blockade, Internet activism, hacktivism, mass strikes, protest art (Lennon Walls), hunger strikes, petitions, boycotts, advertisements
  • Extradition bill indefinitely suspended on 15 June
  • Chief Executive Lam offers a limited public apology on 16 June for failing to properly communicate the bill's purpose and not holding public consultations
  • Lam declares "The bill is dead" on 9 July
  • Police partially retracts characterisation of protests as "riots"[3]
Parties to the civil conflict

(no centralised authority)

Lead figures
(no centralised leadership)
Injuries and arrests
Death(s)5 (all suicides)[7][8][9][10][11]
Injuries2,100+ (as of 15 August 2019)[6]
Arrested748 (as of 16 August 2019)[12]
2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests
Traditional Chinese反逃犯條例修訂運動
Simplified Chinese反逃犯条例修订运动
Anti-repatriation protests
Traditional Chinese反送中運動
Simplified Chinese反送中运动

The 2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests are a series of demonstrations in Hong Kong against an extradition bill proposed by the government of Hong Kong.[13] If enacted, the bill would allow local authorities to detain and extradite people who are wanted in territories that Hong Kong does not have extradition agreements with, including mainland China and Taiwan.[14] Some fear the bill would place Hong Kongers and visitors under mainland Chinese jurisdiction, undermining the autonomy of the region and citizens' rights.[15][16][17][18]

Demonstrations against the bill began in March and April, but escalated in June.[19][20] Hundreds of thousands of people marched in protests of the bill on 9 June.[21] Protests on 12 June, the day the bill was scheduled to a second reading in the Legislative Council, marked a sharp escalation in violence. Riot police deployed tear gas and rubber bullets against demonstrators.[22] Subsequently, investigations into police behaviour and greater accountability for their actions became part of protestor demands.[23][24] A larger march occurred on 16 June.[25]

On 1 July, hundreds of thousands of people participated in the annual July marches.[26] A portion of these demonstrators split from the march and broke into the Legislative Council Complex, vandalising central government symbols.[27]

Chief Executive Carrie Lam suspended the extradition bill on 15 June,[28] saying it was "dead" on 9 July, but stopped short of a full withdrawal.[29][30] Executive Council members Regina Ip and Bernard Charnwut Chan said that the government does not intend to make further concessions.[31]

Protests continued through the summer, escalating into increasingly violent confrontations, between police, activists, pro-Beijing triad members, and local residents in over 20 different neighbourhoods throughout the region.[32] 21 July marked the infamous Yuen Long mob attacks against protesters and bystanders.

As demonstrations continue, protestors are calling for an independent inquiry on police brutality, the release of arrested protesters, a retraction of the official characterisation of the protests as "riots", and direct elections to choose Legislative Council members and the Chief Executive.[31]


The Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019 was first proposed by the government of Hong Kong on February 2019 in response to a 2018 homicide involving a Hong Kong couple in Taiwan. Hong Kong does not have an extradition treaty with Taiwan, and negotiating one would be problematic since the government of China does not recognise the Cap. 525) that would establish a mechanism for case-by-case transfers of fugitives, on the order of the Chief Executive, to any jurisdiction with which the city lacks a formal extradition treaty.[18] This included extradition to mainland China.

The inclusion of mainland China in the amendment is of concern to different sectors of Hong Kong society. Pro-democracy advocates fear the city's jurisdiction would merge with mainland Chinese laws administered by the Communist Party, thereby eroding the "one country, two systems" principle established since the 1997 handover. Opponents of the current bill urged the Hong Kong government to establish an extradition arrangement solely with Taiwan, and to sunset the arrangement immediately after the surrender of the suspect.[18][33]

Other Languages
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fán Sung Chûng Yun-thung