2019–20 Hong Kong protests

  • 2019–20 hong kong protests
    part of democratic development in hong kong,
    the hong kong–mainland china conflict
    and the protests of 2019
    hong kong anti-extradition bill protest (48108527758).jpg
    2019-09-15 hong kong anti-extradition bill protest 036.jpg
    2019-10-01 demonstration hong kong 61.jpg
    hong kong protests - panorama.jpg
    2019-09-13 lion rock, hong kong 04.jpg
    demonstration against extradition bill, 12 june 2019.jpg
    lr-7557 (49049938866).jpg
    a collection of various protest scenes in hong kong
    date
    • 15 march 2019 – present
      (341 days, total)[1]
    • 9 june 2019 – present
      (255 days, large-scale break out)[2]
    location
    • hong kong
    • other cities worldwide
    caused by
    • proposal of the fugitive offenders and mutual legal assistance in criminal matters legislation (amendment) bill 2019
    • alleged misconduct by the hong kong police force against protesters (since 12 june)[3][4][5]
    • hong kong–mainland china conflict, political screening, economic and social inequality[6]
    • the failure of the 2014 umbrella revolution[7]
    • implementation of anti-mask law and the invocation of the emergency regulations ordinance (since 3 october)[8]
    goals
    • full withdrawal of the extradition bill from the legislative process
    • retraction of the characterisation of the 12 june 2019 protests as "riots"
    • release and exoneration of arrested protesters
    • establishment of an independent commission of inquiry into police behaviour
    • universal suffrage for legislative council and chief executive elections
    • resignation of carrie lam[9]
    methodsdiverse (see tactics and methods)
    concessions
    given
    • bill suspended on 15 june and officially withdrawn on 23 october[10][11]
    • police partially retracted characterisation of protests on or before 12 june as "riots", except for five individuals in admiralty on 12 june[12]
    parties to the civil conflict

    lead figures
    protesters
    (no centralised leadership)

    deaths, injuries and arrests
    death(s)2
    injuries
    • 2,600+ (as of 9 december 2019)[22][a]
    arrested7,019 (as of 16 january 2020)[24][b]

    the 2019–20 hong kong protests are ongoing protests in hong kong triggered by the introduction of the fugitive offenders amendment bill by the hong kong government.[26][27] if enacted, the bill would have allowed the extradition of criminal fugitives who are wanted in territories with which hong kong does not currently have extradition agreements, including mainland china.[28] this led to concerns that the bill would subject hong kong residents and visitors to the jurisdiction and legal system of mainland china, thereby undermining the region's autonomy and people's civil liberties.[29][30][31][32] as the protests progressed, the protesters laid out five key demands, namely the withdrawal of the bill, investigation into alleged police brutality and misconduct, the release of arrested protesters, retraction of the official characterisation of the protests as "riots", and chief executive carrie lam's resignation along with the introduction of universal suffrage for election of the legislative council and the chief executive.[33][34]

    despite a demonstration attended by hundreds of thousands on 9 june, the government proceeded with the bill.[35][36] protesters gathered outside the legislative council complex to stall the bill's second reading on 12 june,[37][38][39][40] resulting in an intense standoff between the protesters and the police, who deployed tear gas and rubber bullets.[41] an even bigger march took place on 16 june, just one day after the suspension of the bill, as protesters insisted on the complete withdrawal of the bill and reacted to the perceived excessive use of force by the police on 12 june.[42] the anniversary of the handover on 1 july saw the storming of the legislative council complex,[43] and subsequent protests throughout the summer spread to different districts.[44] the police's inaction when suspected triad members assaulted protesters and commuters in yuen long on 21 july[45] and the police storming of prince edward station on 31 august caused further escalation of the protests.[46]

    lam refused to withdraw the bill until 4 september,[47][48][49] but still refused to concede on the other four demands. large-scale demonstrations occurred on 1 october, the national day. during a skirmish in tsuen wan, an 18-year-old protester was shot whilst swinging a rod at a police officer. claiming to curb further protests, lam invoked the emergency regulations ordinance on 4 october to implement an anti-mask law, to counterproductive effect.[50] as the protests dragged on, confrontations escalated as both sides became increasingly violent. the number of police brutality and misconduct allegations continued to increased.[51][52][53] in response, some protesters escalated their use of radical methods such as throwing petrol bombs,[54][51] conducting vigilante attacks against perceived provocateurs,[55][56] and vandalising supposed pro-beijing entities.[57] rifts within society widened as activists from both sides have assaulted each other, with lawmakers from both sides and protest organisers being attacked or intimidated.[58][55] the deaths of students chan yin-lam in september and chow tsz-lok in november, as well as the shooting of an unarmed 21-year-old protester in november, further intensified the protests. protesters have also briefly occupied university campuses to block key thoroughfares. the police reacted by besieging the chinese university of hong kong (cuhk) and hong kong polytechnic university (polyu) which resulted in a large number of injuries and arrests.[59]

    the government and the police have received the lowest approval ratings since the 1997 handover in public opinion polls.[60][61][62] their performance contributed to the unprecedented landslide victory of the pro-democratic bloc in the 2019 district council election, which was widely viewed as a de facto referendum on the protest movement.[63] the central people's government has characterised the protests as the "worst crisis in hong kong" since the handover in 1997 and alleged that foreign powers were instigating the conflict,[64] though the protests, which continued through to 2020, have been largely described as "leaderless".[65][66] the united states passed the hong kong human rights and democracy act on 27 november to support the protest movement;[67] solidarity rallies were held in dozens of cities abroad. counter-protesters have held several pro-police rallies.[68]

    since the protest movement began, there have been two deaths: chow tsz-lok, a student who fell to his death inside a car park in tseung kwan o,[62] and luo changqing, an elderly man who died after being struck on the head by a brick[69][70][71][72] thrown by a protester[73][74][75][76][77][78] during a confrontation between a group of protesters and several sheung shui residents,[69][79][80][81][82] who were trying to clear bricks from the road.[83] in addition, public health experts have identified the protests as a significant stressor related to suicides and protesters have linked it to at least nine suicides.[84]

  • background
  • objectives
  • history
  • clashes between protesters and counter-protesters
  • deaths
  • tactics and methods
  • online confrontations
  • allegations of police misconduct
  • impacts
  • reactions
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

2019–20 Hong Kong protests
Part of democratic development in Hong Kong,
the Hong Kong–Mainland China conflict
and the protests of 2019
Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protest (48108527758).jpg
2019-09-15 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protest 036.jpg
2019-10-01 Demonstration Hong Kong 61.jpg
Hong Kong protests - Panorama.jpg
2019-09-13 Lion Rock, Hong Kong 04.jpg
Demonstration against extradition bill, 12 June 2019.jpg
LR-7557 (49049938866).jpg
A collection of various protest scenes in Hong Kong
Date
  • 15 March 2019 – present
    (341 days, total)[1]
  • 9 June 2019 – present
    (255 days, large-scale break out)[2]
Location
Caused by
Goals
  • Full withdrawal of the extradition bill from the legislative process
  • Retraction of the characterisation of the 12 June 2019 protests as "riots"
  • Release and exoneration of arrested protesters
  • Establishment of an independent commission of inquiry into police behaviour
  • Universal suffrage for Legislative Council and Chief Executive elections
  • Resignation of Carrie Lam[9]
MethodsDiverse (see tactics and methods)
Concessions
given
  • Bill suspended on 15 June and officially withdrawn on 23 October[10][11]
  • Police partially retracted characterisation of protests on or before 12 June as "riots", except for five individuals in Admiralty on 12 June[12]
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures
Protesters
(no centralised leadership)

Deaths, injuries and arrests
Death(s)2
Injuries
  • 2,600+ (as of 9 December 2019)[22][a]
Arrested7,019 (as of 16 January 2020)[24][b]

The 2019–20 Hong Kong protests are ongoing protests in Hong Kong triggered by the introduction of the Fugitive Offenders amendment bill by the Hong Kong government.[26][27] If enacted, the bill would have allowed the extradition of criminal fugitives who are wanted in territories with which Hong Kong does not currently have extradition agreements, including mainland China.[28] This led to concerns that the bill would subject Hong Kong residents and visitors to the jurisdiction and legal system of mainland China, thereby undermining the region's autonomy and people's civil liberties.[29][30][31][32] As the protests progressed, the protesters laid out five key demands, namely the withdrawal of the bill, investigation into alleged police brutality and misconduct, the release of arrested protesters, retraction of the official characterisation of the protests as "riots", and Chief Executive Carrie Lam's resignation along with the introduction of universal suffrage for election of the Legislative Council and the Chief Executive.[33][34]

Despite a demonstration attended by hundreds of thousands on 9 June, the government proceeded with the bill.[35][36] Protesters gathered outside the Legislative Council Complex to stall the bill's second reading on 12 June,[37][38][39][40] resulting in an intense standoff between the protesters and the police, who deployed tear gas and rubber bullets.[41] An even bigger march took place on 16 June, just one day after the suspension of the bill, as protesters insisted on the complete withdrawal of the bill and reacted to the perceived excessive use of force by the police on 12 June.[42] The anniversary of the handover on 1 July saw the storming of the Legislative Council Complex,[43] and subsequent protests throughout the summer spread to different districts.[44] The police's inaction when suspected triad members assaulted protesters and commuters in Yuen Long on 21 July[45] and the police storming of Prince Edward station on 31 August caused further escalation of the protests.[46]

Lam refused to withdraw the bill until 4 September,[47][48][49] but still refused to concede on the other four demands. Large-scale demonstrations occurred on 1 October, the National Day. During a skirmish in Tsuen Wan, an 18-year-old protester was shot whilst swinging a rod at a police officer. Claiming to curb further protests, Lam invoked the Emergency Regulations Ordinance on 4 October to implement an anti-mask law, to counterproductive effect.[50] As the protests dragged on, confrontations escalated as both sides became increasingly violent. The number of police brutality and misconduct allegations continued to increased.[51][52][53] In response, some protesters escalated their use of radical methods such as throwing petrol bombs,[54][51] conducting vigilante attacks against perceived provocateurs,[55][56] and vandalising supposed pro-Beijing entities.[57] Rifts within society widened as activists from both sides have assaulted each other, with lawmakers from both sides and protest organisers being attacked or intimidated.[58][55] The deaths of students Chan Yin-lam in September and Chow Tsz-lok in November, as well as the shooting of an unarmed 21-year-old protester in November, further intensified the protests. Protesters have also briefly occupied university campuses to block key thoroughfares. The police reacted by besieging the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) and Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) which resulted in a large number of injuries and arrests.[59]

The government and the police have received the lowest approval ratings since the 1997 handover in public opinion polls.[60][61][62] Their performance contributed to the unprecedented landslide victory of the pro-democratic bloc in the 2019 District Council election, which was widely viewed as a de facto referendum on the protest movement.[63] The Central People's Government has characterised the protests as the "worst crisis in Hong Kong" since the handover in 1997 and alleged that foreign powers were instigating the conflict,[64] though the protests, which continued through to 2020, have been largely described as "leaderless".[65][66] The United States passed the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act on 27 November to support the protest movement;[67] solidarity rallies were held in dozens of cities abroad. Counter-protesters have held several pro-police rallies.[68]

Since the protest movement began, there have been two deaths: Chow Tsz-lok, a student who fell to his death inside a car park in Tseung Kwan O,[62] and Luo Changqing, an elderly man who died after being struck on the head by a brick[69][70][71][72] thrown by a protester[73][74][75][76][77][78] during a confrontation between a group of protesters and several Sheung Shui residents,[69][79][80][81][82] who were trying to clear bricks from the road.[83] In addition, public health experts have identified the protests as a significant stressor related to suicides and protesters have linked it to at least nine suicides.[84]

Other Languages
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fán Sung Chûng Yun-thung