electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the
electric relay in 1835, the
telegraph and its
Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876,
 and the first functional
light bulb in 1878.
The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating
scientific discovery and
invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.
Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan.
Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict
social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.
 Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the
Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the
Qing Dynasty, in the
First Sino-Japanese War.
Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating
population growth in the
western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million.
 The introduction of
railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fuelling major
urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's
largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were
explored during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s.
Liberalism became the pre-eminent
reform movement in Europe.
Arab slave traders
and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in today's Tanzania and Mozambique), 19th century
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful
slave revolt in Haiti,
Britain and France stepped up the battle against the
Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's
Slavery Abolition Act charged the British
Royal Navy with ending the global
 The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's
13th Amendment following their
Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in
Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see
serfdom was abolished in
The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new
settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century.
Chicago in the United States and
Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire respectively by the end of the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America.
The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States.
baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as
cricket to many different parts of the world.
It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of
Romania as a result of the
second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great