1938

Millennium:2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1938 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1938
MCMXXXVIII
Ab urbe condita2691
Armenian calendar1387
ԹՎ ՌՅՁԷ
Assyrian calendar6688
Bahá'í calendar94–95
Balinese saka calendar1859–1860
Bengali calendar1345
Berber calendar2888
British Regnal yearGeo. 6 – 3 Geo. 6
Buddhist calendar2482
Burmese calendar1300
Byzantine calendar7446–7447
Chinese calendar丁丑(Fire Ox)
4634 or 4574
    — to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4635 or 4575
Coptic calendar1654–1655
Discordian calendar3104
Ethiopian calendar1930–1931
Hebrew calendar5698–5699
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1994–1995
 - Shaka Samvat1859–1860
 - Kali Yuga5038–5039
Holocene calendar11938
Igbo calendar938–939
Iranian calendar1316–1317
Islamic calendar1356–1357
Japanese calendarShōwa 13
(昭和13年)
Javanese calendar1868–1869
Juche calendar27
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4271
Minguo calendarROC 27
民國27年
Nanakshahi calendar470
Thai solar calendar2480–2481
Tibetan calendar阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
2064 or 1683 or 911
    — to —
阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
2065 or 1684 or 912

1938 (MCMXXXVIII)was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1938th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 938th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1930s decade.

Events

January

January 16: Benny Goodman in New York City
January 27: Niagara Bridge collapses in ice.

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

  • September – The European crisis over German demands for annexation of the Sudeten borderland of Czechoslovakia becomes increasingly severe.
  • September 2 – Soviet Ambassador to Britain Ivan Maisky calls on Winston Churchill, telling him that Soviet Foreign Commissar Maxim Litvinov has expressed to the French chargé d'affaires in Moscow that the Soviet Union is willing to fight over the territorial integrity of Czechoslovakia.
  • September 4 – During the ceremony marking the unveiling of a plaque at Pointe de Grave, France, celebrating Franco-American friendship; American Ambassador William Bullitt in a speech states, "France and the United States were united in war and peace", leading to much speculation in the press that if war did break out over Czechoslovakia, then the United States would join the war on the Allied side.
  • September 5Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš invites mid-level representatives of the Sudeten Germans to the Hradčany palace, to tell them he will accept whatever demands they care to make, provided the Sudetenland remains part of the Republic of Czechoslovakia.
  • September 6 – What eventually proves to be the last of the "Nuremberg Rallies" begins. It draws worldwide attention because it is widely assumed Hitler, in his closing remarks, will signal whether there will be peace with or war over Czechoslovakia.
  • September 7The Times publishes a lead article which calls on Czechoslovakia to cede the Sudetenland to Germany.
  • September 9 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt disallows the popular interpretation of Bullitt's speech at a press conference at the White House. Roosevelt states it is "100% wrong" the U.S. would join a "stop-Hitler bloc" under any circumstances and makes it quite clear that in the event of German aggression against Czechoslovakia, the U.S. would remain neutral.
  • September 10Hermann Göring, in a speech at Nuremberg, calls the Czechs a "miserable pygmy race" who are "harassing the human race." That same evening, Edvard Beneš, President of Czechoslovakia, makes a broadcast in which he appeals for calm.
  • September 12Hitler makes his much-anticipated closing address at Nuremberg, in which he vehemently attacks the Czech people and President Beneš. American news commentator Hans von Kaltenborn begins his famous marathon of broadcast bulletins over the CBS Radio Network with a summation of Hitler's address.
  • September 13 – The followers of Konrad Henlein begin an armed revolt against the Czechoslovak government in Sudetenland. Martial law is declared and after much bloodshed on both sides order is temporarily restored. Neville Chamberlain personally sends a telegram to Hitler urgently requesting that they both meet.
  • September 15Neville Chamberlain arrives in Berchtesgaden to begin negotiations with Hitler over the Sudetenland.
  • September 16Lord Runciman is recalled to London from Prague in order to brief the British government on the situation in the Sudetenland.
  • September 17Neville Chamberlain returns temporarily to London to confer with his cabinet. The U.S.S.R. Red Army masses along the Ukrainian frontier. Rumania agrees to allow Soviet soldiers free passage across her territory to defend Czechoslovakia.
  • September 18
    • During a meeting between Neville Chamberlain, the recently elected Premier of France, Édouard Daladier, and Daladier's Foreign Minister, Georges Bonnet, it becomes apparent neither the British nor the French governments are prepared to go to war over the Sudetenland. The Soviet Union declares it will come to the defence of Czechoslovakia only if France honours her commitment to defend Czechoslovak independence.
    • Mussolini makes a speech in Trieste, Italy where he indicates that Italy is supporting Germany in the Sudeten crisis.
  • September 21
    • In the early hours of the day, representatives of the French and British governments call on Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš to tell him France and Britain will not fight Hitler if he decides to annex the Sudetenland by force. Late in the afternoon the Czechoslovak government capitulates to the French and British demands.
    • Winston Churchill warns of grave consequences to European security if Czechoslovakia is partitioned. The same day, Soviet Foreign Commissar Maxim Litvinov makes a similar statement in the League of Nations.
    • The 1938 New England hurricane strikes Long Island and southern New England, killing over 300 along the Rhode Island shoreline and 600 altogether.
    • Following the capitulation of the Czech government to Germany's demands, both Poland and Hungary demand slices of Czech territory where their nationals reside.
  • September 22
    • Unable to survive the previous day's capitulation to the demands of the English and French governments, Czechoslovak premier Milan Hodža resigns. General Jan Syrový takes his place.
    • Neville Chamberlain arrives in the city of Bad Godesberg for another round of talks with Hitler over the Sudetenland crisis. Hitler raises his demands to include occupation of all German Sudeten territories by October 1. That night after a telephone conference, Chamberlain reverses himself and advises the Czechoslovaks to mobilize.
    • Olsen and Johnson's musical comedy revue Hellzapoppin begins its 3-year run on Broadway.
  • September 23
    • The Czechoslovak army mobilizes.
    • As the Polish army masses along the Czech border, the Soviet Union warns Poland that if it crosses the Czech frontier, Russia will regard the 1932 non-aggression pact between the two countries as void.
  • September 24
    • Sir Eric Phipps, British Ambassador to France, reports to London, "all that is best in France is against war, almost at any price", being opposed only by a "small, but noisy and corrupt, war group". Phipps's report creates major doubts about the ability and/or willingness of France to go to war.
    • At 1:30 AM, Adolf Hitler and Neville Chamberlain conclude their talks on the Sudetenland. Chamberlain agrees to take Hitler's demands, codified in the Godesberg Memorandum, personally to the Czech Government. The Czech Government rejects the demands, as does Chamberlain's own cabinet. The French Government also initially rejects the terms and orders a partial mobilization of the French army.
  • September 26 – In a vitriolic speech at Berlin's Sportpalast, Hitler defies the world and implies war with Czechoslovakia will begin at any time.
  • September 28 – As his self-imposed October 1 deadline for occupation of the Sudetenland approaches, Adolf Hitler invites Italian Duce Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edourd Deladier and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to one last conference in Munich. The Czechs themselves are not invited.
  • September 29
  • September 30 – Neville Chamberlain returns to Britain from meeting with Adolf Hitler and declares "Peace for our time".

October

November

December

Date unknown

Other Languages
Afrikaans: 1938
Alemannisch: 1938
አማርኛ: 1938 እ.ኤ.አ.
Аҧсшәа: 1938
العربية: 1938
aragonés: 1938
armãneashti: 1938
arpetan: 1938
asturianu: 1938
Avañe'ẽ: 1938
авар: 1938
azərbaycanca: 1938
বাংলা: ১৯৩৮
Bahasa Banjar: 1938
Bân-lâm-gú: 1938 nî
Basa Banyumasan: 1938
башҡортса: 1938 йыл
беларуская: 1938
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: 1938
भोजपुरी: 1938
Bikol Central: 1938
български: 1938
Boarisch: 1938
bosanski: 1938.
brezhoneg: 1938
català: 1938
Чӑвашла: 1938
Cebuano: 1938
čeština: 1938
Cymraeg: 1938
dansk: 1938
davvisámegiella: 1938
Deutsch: 1938
dolnoserbski: 1938
eesti: 1938
Ελληνικά: 1938
emiliàn e rumagnòl: 1938
эрзянь: 1938 ие
español: 1938
Esperanto: 1938
estremeñu: 1938
euskara: 1938
فارسی: ۱۹۳۸
Fiji Hindi: 1938
føroyskt: 1938
français: 1938
Frysk: 1938
furlan: 1938
Gaeilge: 1938
Gaelg: 1938
Gagauz: 1938
Gàidhlig: 1938
galego: 1938
贛語: 1938年
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: 1938-ngièn
хальмг: 1938 җил
한국어: 1938년
հայերեն: 1938
हिन्दी: १९३८
hornjoserbsce: 1938
hrvatski: 1938.
Ido: 1938
Ilokano: 1938
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মারি ১৯৩৮
Bahasa Indonesia: 1938
interlingua: 1938
Ирон: 1938-æм аз
íslenska: 1938
italiano: 1938
עברית: 1938
Basa Jawa: 1938
ಕನ್ನಡ: ೧೯೩೮
Kapampangan: 1938
къарачай-малкъар: 1938 джыл
ქართული: 1938
kaszëbsczi: 1938
қазақша: 1938 жыл
kernowek: 1938
Kiswahili: 1938
коми: 1938-ӧд во
Kreyòl ayisyen: 1938 (almanak gregoryen)
kurdî: 1938
Кыргызча: 1938
кырык мары: 1938 и
лезги: 1938 йис
Latina: 1938
latviešu: 1938. gads
Lëtzebuergesch: 1938
lietuvių: 1938 m.
Ligure: 1938
Limburgs: 1938
lingála: 1938
Livvinkarjala: 1938
lumbaart: 1938
magyar: 1938
मैथिली: १९३८
македонски: 1938
Malagasy: 1938
മലയാളം: 1938
Māori: 1938
मराठी: इ.स. १९३८
მარგალური: 1938
مصرى: 1938
Bahasa Melayu: 1938
Baso Minangkabau: 1938
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 1938 nièng
монгол: 1938 он
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ၁၉၃၈
Nāhuatl: 1938
Dorerin Naoero: 1938
Nederlands: 1938
Nedersaksies: 1938
नेपाली: सन् १९३८
नेपाल भाषा: ई सं १९३८
日本語: 1938年
Napulitano: 1938
нохчийн: 1938 шо
Nordfriisk: 1938
norsk: 1938
norsk nynorsk: 1938
Nouormand: 1938
Novial: 1938
occitan: 1938
олык марий: 1938
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ୧୯୩୮
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: 1938
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: 1938
पालि: १९३८
پنجابی: 1938
Papiamentu: 1938
Tok Pisin: 1938
Plattdüütsch: 1938
polski: 1938
português: 1938
Qaraqalpaqsha: 1938
qırımtatarca: 1938
reo tahiti: 1938
Ripoarisch: Joohr 1938
română: 1938
rumantsch: 1938
Runa Simi: 1938
русиньскый: 1938
русский: 1938 год
саха тыла: 1938
sardu: 1938
Scots: 1938
Seeltersk: 1938
Sesotho sa Leboa: 1938
shqip: 1938
sicilianu: 1938
Simple English: 1938
سنڌي: 1938ع
slovenčina: 1938
slovenščina: 1938
ślůnski: 1938
Soomaaliga: 1938
کوردی: ١٩٣٨
српски / srpski: 1938
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1938
Basa Sunda: 1938
suomi: 1938
svenska: 1938
Tagalog: 1938
தமிழ்: 1938
татарча/tatarça: 1938 ел
తెలుగు: 1938
tetun: 1938
ไทย: พ.ศ. 2481
тоҷикӣ: Соли 1938
Türkçe: 1938
Türkmençe: 1938
удмурт: 1938 ар
українська: 1938
اردو: 1938ء
vèneto: 1938
Tiếng Việt: 1938
Volapük: 1938
Võro: 1938
walon: 1938
West-Vlams: 1938
Winaray: 1938
ייִדיש: 1938
Yorùbá: 1938
粵語: 1938年
Zazaki: 1938
Zeêuws: 1938
žemaitėška: 1938
中文: 1938年
Kabɩyɛ: 1938