This article is about the year 1923.
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MCMXXIII) was a
starting on Monday (
dominical letter G) of the
Gregorian calendar, the 1923rd year of the
Common Era (CE) and
Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 923rd year of the
2nd millennium, the 23rd year of the
20th century, and the 4th year of the
1920s decade. As of the start of 1923, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which was relegated that February to use only by churches after
Greece adopted the Gregorian calendar.
September 1 – The
Great Kantō earthquake devastates Tokyo and
Yokohama, killing an estimated 142,807 people, but according to a Japanese construction research center report in 2005, 105,000 are confirmed dead.
September 4 – The
United States Navy's first home-built rigid
USS Shenandoah (ZR-1) makes her first flight at
Naval Air Station Lakehurst (New Jersey); she contains most of the world's extracted reserves of
helium at this time.
September 7 – At the International Police Conference in Vienna, the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC), better known as
Interpol, is set up.
September 8 –
Honda Point disaster: Nine United States Navy
destroyers run aground off the
September 9 – Turkish head of state
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk founds the
Republican People's Party (CHP).
September 10 – The
Irish Free State joins the
League of Nations.
September 13 – Military coup in Spain:
Miguel Primo de Rivera takes over, setting up a
Trade unions are prohibited for 10 years.
September 17 –
1923 Berkeley Fire: A major fire in
Berkeley, California, erupts, consuming some 640 structures, including 584 homes in the densely built neighborhoods north of the campus of the
University of California.
26 – Newspaper printers strike in New York City.
September 24 – Second storm of the
Atlantic hurricane season, a major hurricane north of
September 26 – In
Gustav Ritter von Kahr takes dictatorial powers.
September 29 – The
British Mandate for Palestine (
1922) comes into effect, officially creating the
Palestine as a
homeland for the Jewish people under British administration and
Transjordan as a separate
- September 29 – The
French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon takes effect.
September 30 –
Küstrin Putsch: Outside Berlin, Major Ernst von Buchrucker, the leader of the
Black Reichswehr attempts a putsch by seizing several forts.
November 1 – The Finnish flag carrier airline
Finnair is started as Aero oy.
November 8 –
Beer Hall Putsch: In
Adolf Hitler leads the
Nazis in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Bavarian government; police and troops crush the attempt the next day.
November 11 –
Adolf Hitler is arrested for his leading role in the
Beer Hall Putsch, two days after the Putsch was crushed by the government. 20 people died as a result of the associated violence.
November 12 – Her Highness
Princess Maud of Fife marries Captain Charles Alexander Carnegie in Wellington Barracks, London.
November 15 –
Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic:
Hyperinflation in Germany reaches its height. One United States dollar is worth 4,200,000,000,000
 (4.2 trillion on the
Gustav Stresemann abolishes the old currency and replaces it with the
Rentenmark at an exchange rate of one Rentenmark to 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion on the short scale) Papiermark with effect from November 20.
November 23 –
Gustav Stresemann's coalition government collapses in Germany.
December 1 – In
Gleno Dam on the Gleno River in the Valle di Scalve in the northern Province of Bergamo bursts, killing at least 356 people.
December 10 – Sigma Alpha Kappa (the first social fraternity at a Jesuit college in the United States) is founded as a fraternal organization until the ban on social fraternities is lifted.
December 20 – BEGGARS Fraternity (the second social fraternity at a Jesuit college in the United States) is founded by nine men who have secured permission to do so from the Pope.
December 21 – The
Nepal–Britain Treaty is the first to define the international status of
Nepal as an independent sovereign country.
December 27 – The crown prince of Japan survives an assassination attempt in Tokyo.
December 29 –
Vladimir K. Zworykin files his first
patent (in the United States) for "television systems".