18th century

Millennium:2nd millennium
State leaders:
Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution
Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader Shah.
Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
Indian emperor Tipu Sultan seated on his throne, by Anna Tonneli
The American Revolutionary War took place in the late 18th century.

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American, French, and Haitian revolutions. This was an age of violent slave trading, and global human trafficking. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century.

In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.

18th century music included the Late Baroque period (including Johan Sebastian Bach and George Frederic Handel) and the classical period (including Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart).

The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years.

European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India, especially Bengal. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars.

In Central Asia, Nader Shah caused major invasions and led successful military campaigns and the Durrani Empire was founded.

In the Indian subcontinent, the death of the Islamic Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb marks the end of the medieval India and the beginning of the modern India and the beginning of European invasion India. The victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and their French allies[1] in the Battle of Plassey caused the deindustrialization of Bengal and the beginning of the British Industrial Revolution which radically changed human society and the environment. The British invasion since then expanded to cover much of South Asia.

French-Italian emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, formed one of the Franco-Indian alliances with the major economic power Kingdom of Mysore,[2] governed by Tipu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali, who pioneered the use of Rocket artillery and the world's first iron-cased rockets, the Mysorean rockets, through the compilation of the Fathul Mujahidin.[3][4] The Anglo-Mysore Wars were fought and the Treaty of Mangalore was initiated in 1784.

The defeat of the British resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States.

Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.[5][6] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century[7] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815[8] or even later.[9]



The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power.
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700
Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.[17]


Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
George III, King of Great Britain.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: 18de eeu
Alemannisch: 18. Jahrhundert
العربية: القرن 18
aragonés: Sieglo XVIII
asturianu: Sieglu XVIII
azərbaycanca: XVIII əsr
تۆرکجه: ۱۸. یوز ایل
Bân-lâm-gú: 18 sè-kí
Basa Banyumasan: Abad kaping-18
башҡортса: XVIII быуат
беларуская: XVIII стагоддзе
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: XVIII стагодзьдзе
български: 18 век
bosanski: 18. vijek
brezhoneg: XVIIIvet kantved
català: Segle XVIII
Чӑвашла: XVIII ĕмĕр
čeština: 18. století
Cymraeg: 18fed ganrif
davvisámegiella: 1700-lohku (jahkečuohti)
eesti: 18. sajand
Ελληνικά: 18ος αιώνας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: XVIII sécol
эрзянь: XVIII пинге
español: Siglo XVIII
Esperanto: 18-a jarcento
estremeñu: Sigru XVIII
euskara: XVIII. mendea
Fiji Hindi: 18th century
føroyskt: 18. øld
français: XVIIIe siècle
Frysk: 18e iuw
Gaeilge: 18ú haois
Gaelg: 18oo eash
Gagauz: 18. yüzyıl
Gàidhlig: 18mh Linn
贛語: 18世紀
한국어: 18세기
հայերեն: 18-րդ դար
हिन्दी: 18 शताब्दी
hrvatski: 18. stoljeće
Bahasa Indonesia: Abad ke-18
interlingua: Seculo 18
Ирон: XVIII æнус
íslenska: 18. öldin
italiano: XVIII secolo
עברית: המאה ה-18
ქართული: XVIII საუკუნე
қазақша: XVIII ғасыр
Kiswahili: Karne ya 18
коми: XVIII нэм
latgaļu: 18 godu symts
Latina: Saeculum 18
latviešu: 18. gadsimts
Lëtzebuergesch: 18. Joerhonnert
lietuvių: XVIII amžius
Ligure: XVIII secolo
Limburgs: Achtiende iew
Lingua Franca Nova: Sentenio 18
la .lojban.: 17xyxymoi
lumbaart: Sécul XVIII
magyar: 18. század
македонски: 18 век
Māori: Rautau 18
მარგალური: XVIII ოშწანურა
Bahasa Melayu: Abad ke-18
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 18 sié-gī
монгол: 18-р зуун
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ၁၈ ရာစုနှစ်
Nederlands: 18e eeuw
Nedersaksies: 18e eeuw
日本語: 18世紀
Napulitano: XVIII seculo
нохчийн: XVIII бӀешо
Nordfriisk: 18. juarhunert
norsk nynorsk: 1700-talet
Nouormand: XVIIIe s.
Novial: 18esmi sekle
occitan: Sègle XVIII
олык марий: XVIII курым
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: XVIII asr
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: 18ਵੀਂ ਸਦੀ
Plattdüütsch: 18. Johrhunnert
polski: XVIII wiek
português: Século XVIII
русиньскый: XVIII. стороча
русский: XVIII век
саха тыла: XVIII үйэ
Seeltersk: 18. Jierhunnert
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ngwagakgolo 18
sicilianu: Sèculu XVIII
සිංහල: 18 වන සියවස
Simple English: 18th century
slovenčina: 18. storočie
slovenščina: 18. stoletje
српски / srpski: 18. век
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 18. vijek
Basa Sunda: Abad ka-18
suomi: 1700-luku
svenska: 1700-talet
татарча/tatarça: XVIII гасыр
Türkçe: 18. yüzyıl
Türkmençe: 18-nji asyr
українська: XVIII століття
vèneto: XVIII secoło
Tiếng Việt: Thế kỷ 18
吴语: 18世纪
ייִדיש: 18טער י"ה
粵語: 18世紀
žemaitėška: XVIII omžios
中文: 18世纪