Political boundaries as of 1700
The 18th century lasted from January 1,
1701 to December 31,
1800 in the
Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the
Enlightenment culminated in the
American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. This dream turned into a reality with the
French Revolution of 1789-, though later compromised by the excesses of the
Reign of Terror (1793-1794) under
Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of
Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the
Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the
Seven Years' War (1756-1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against
Russia in the second half of the century.
The 18th century also marked the end of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered
Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the
Kingdom of Prussia, the
Russian Empire and the
Archduchy of Austria which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of
Central European politics for the next hundred years.
European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the
Age of Sail continued.
Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the
defeat of France in North America in the 1760s and
the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the
American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent
United States. The
Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved
steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society and the environment.
Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of
Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.
 To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century
 may run from the
Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the
Battle of Waterloo in
 or even later.