18th century

Millennium:2nd millennium
State leaders:
Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution
Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
Indian emperor Tipu Sultan seated on his throne, by Anna Tonneli
The American Revolutionary War took place in the late 18th century.

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American, French, and Haitian revolutions. This was an age of violent slave trading, and global human trafficking. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century.

In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.

18th century music included the Baroque period (including Johan Sebastian Bach and George Frederic Handel) and the classical period (including Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart).

The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years.

European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars.

Napoleon Bonaparte, formed the Franco-Indian alliance with Indian ruler Tipu Sultan and his father emperor Hyder Ali and learnt more about Quran and Islam from them.[1] Tipu Sultan embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore Empire as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century.[2] Under his reign, Mysore overtook the wealthy Bengal Subah as India's dominant economic power, with highly productive agriculture and textile manufacturing.[3] Mysore's average income was five times higher than subsistence level at the time.[4]Along his father, he used their French-trained army in alliance and won important victories against the British Empire in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784.

The defeat of the British resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society and the environment.

Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.[5][6] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century[7] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815[8] or even later.[9]



The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power.
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700
Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.[17]


Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
George III, King of Great Britain.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: 18de eeu
Alemannisch: 18. Jahrhundert
العربية: القرن 18
aragonés: Sieglo XVIII
asturianu: Sieglu XVIII
azərbaycanca: XVIII əsr
تۆرکجه: ۱۸. یوز ایل
Bân-lâm-gú: 18 sè-kí
Basa Banyumasan: Abad kaping-18
башҡортса: XVIII быуат
беларуская: XVIII стагоддзе
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: XVIII стагодзьдзе
български: 18 век
bosanski: 18. vijek
brezhoneg: XVIIIvet kantved
català: Segle XVIII
Чӑвашла: XVIII ĕмĕр
čeština: 18. století
Cymraeg: 18fed ganrif
davvisámegiella: 1700-lohku (jahkečuohti)
eesti: 18. sajand
Ελληνικά: 18ος αιώνας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: XVIII sécol
эрзянь: XVIII пинге
español: Siglo XVIII
Esperanto: 18-a jarcento
estremeñu: Sigru XVIII
euskara: XVIII. mendea
Fiji Hindi: 18th century
føroyskt: 18. øld
français: XVIIIe siècle
Frysk: 18e iuw
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Gaelg: 18oo eash
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हिन्दी: 18 शताब्दी
hrvatski: 18. stoljeće
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interlingua: Seculo 18
Ирон: XVIII æнус
íslenska: 18. öldin
italiano: XVIII secolo
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Basa Jawa: Abad ping 18
ქართული: XVIII საუკუნე
қазақша: XVIII ғасыр
Kiswahili: Karne ya 18
коми: XVIII нэм
latgaļu: 18 godu symts
Latina: Saeculum 18
latviešu: 18. gadsimts
Lëtzebuergesch: 18. Joerhonnert
lietuvių: XVIII amžius
Ligure: XVIII secolo
Limburgs: Achtiende iew
Lingua Franca Nova: Sentenio 18
la .lojban.: 17xyxymoi
lumbaart: Sécul XVIII
magyar: 18. század
македонски: 18 век
Māori: Rautau 18
მარგალური: XVIII ოშწანურა
Bahasa Melayu: Abad ke-18
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 18 sié-gī
монгол: 18-р зуун
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ၁၈ ရာစုနှစ်
Nederlands: 18e eeuw
Nedersaksies: 18e eeuw
日本語: 18世紀
Napulitano: XVIII seculo
нохчийн: XVIII бӀешо
Nordfriisk: 18. juarhunert
norsk nynorsk: 1700-talet
Nouormand: XVIIIe s.
Novial: 18esmi sekle
occitan: Sègle XVIII
олык марий: XVIII курым
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: XVIII asr
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: 18ਵੀਂ ਸਦੀ
Plattdüütsch: 18. Johrhunnert
polski: XVIII wiek
português: Século XVIII
русиньскый: XVIII. стороча
русский: XVIII век
саха тыла: XVIII үйэ
Seeltersk: 18. Jierhunnert
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ngwagakgolo 18
sicilianu: Sèculu XVIII
Simple English: 18th century
slovenčina: 18. storočie
slovenščina: 18. stoletje
српски / srpski: 18. век
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 18. vijek
Basa Sunda: Abad ka-18
suomi: 1700-luku
svenska: 1700-talet
татарча/tatarça: XVIII гасыр
Türkçe: 18. yüzyıl
Türkmençe: 18-nji asyr
українська: XVIII століття
vèneto: XVIII secoło
Tiếng Việt: Thế kỷ 18
吴语: 18世纪
ייִדיש: 18טער י"ה
粵語: 18世紀
žemaitėška: XVIII omžios
中文: 18世纪