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1836 (MDCCCXXXVI)was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1836th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 836th year of the 2nd millennium, the 36th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1836, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 1 – Queen Maria II of Portugal marries Prince Ferdinand Augustus Francis Anthony of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
- January 5 – Davy Crockett arrives in Texas.
- January 12
- January 16 – Kane County, Illinois, is formed.
- January 18 – Dade County, Florida, is formed.
- February 8 – London and Greenwich Railway opens its first section, the first railway in London, England.
- February 23 – Texas Revolution: The Battle of the Alamo begins, with an American settler army surrounded by the Mexican Army, under Santa Anna.
- February 25 – Samuel Colt receives a United States patent for the Colt revolver, the first revolving barrel multishot firearm.
- March 1
- March 2 – Texas Revolution – Convention of 1836: The Texas Declaration of Independence is signed by 60 delegates, and the Republic of Texas is declared.
- March 6 – Texas Revolution: The Battle of the Alamo ends; 182 Texan settler soldiers die in a struggle with approximately 5,000 Mexican soldiers.
- March 11 – Sultan Mahmud II abolishes the posts of Reis ül-Küttab and Kahya Bey, and establishes the Ottoman ministries of Foreign Affairs and of the Interior in their place.
- March 17 – Texas Revolution – Convention of 1836: Delegates adopt the Constitution of the Republic of Texas, modeled after the United States Constitution. It allows slavery, requires free blacks to petition Congress to live in the country, but prohibits import of slaves from anywhere but the United States.
- March 27
- March 29 – Richard Wagner's opera Das Liebesverbot is performed for the first time, in Magdeburg.
- March 31 (dated April) – The first monthly part of Charles Dickens's The Pickwick Papers ("The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club..., edited by Boz") is published in London.
- U.S. Patent 1 (after filing 9,957 unnumbered patents) is granted to John Ruggles, for improvements to railroad steam locomotive tires.
- July 20 – Charles Darwin climbs Green Hill, on Ascension Island.
- July 21 – The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad opens between St. John and La Prairie, Quebec, the first steam-worked passenger railroad in British North America.
- July 27 – The settlement of Adelaide, South Australia, is founded.
- July 30 – The first English-language newspaper is published in Hawaii.
- August 17 – The Marriage Act in the United Kingdom establishes civil marriage and registration systems that permit marriages in nonconformist chapels, and a Registrar General of Births, Marriages, and Deaths.
- August 30 – The settlement of Houston, Texas is founded.
- September 1 – Rebuilding begins at the Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem.
- September 5 – Sam Houston is elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.
- September 11 – The Riograndense Republic is proclaimed in South America.
- October 2 – Charles Darwin returns to England aboard HMS Beagle, with biological data he will later use to develop his theory of evolution, having left South America on August 17.
- October 13 – Theodor Fliedner, a Lutheran minister, and Friederike, his wife, open the Deaconess Home and Hospital at Kaiserswerth, Germany, as an institute to train women in nursing.
- October 22 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as first elected President of the Republic of Texas.
- October 24 – The earliest United States patent for a phosphorus friction match is granted to Alonzo Dwight Phillips, of Springfield, Massachusetts.
- October 25 – Construction begins on the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad in North Carolina. Due to a lack of support in Raleigh, the route is revised to run from Wilmington to the Petersburg Railroad in Weldon.
- November 28 – The University of London is established by Royal Charter, with University College London and King's College London named as the first affiliated colleges.
- December 4 – The Whig Party (United States) holds its first national convention, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
- December 7 – United States presidential election, 1836: Martin Van Buren defeats William Henry Harrison, and three other Whig candidates.
- December 15 – The United States Patent Office burns in Washington, D.C.
- December 26 – The Crown colony of South Australia is officially proclaimed (now celebrated in the state of South Australia as Proclamation Day).
- December 27 – Lewes avalanche: An avalanche at Lewes in Sussex, England, kills eight of fifteen5 people buried, when a row of cottages is engulfed in snow.
- December 28 – Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico.
- December 30 – In Saint Petersburg, the Lehman Theater catches fire, killing 800 people.
беларуская (тарашкевіца): 1836
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1836