1830s

Millennium:2nd millennium
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The 1830s decade ran from January 1, 1830, to December 31, 1839

Politics

Pacific

East Asia

China

Lin Zexu supervising the destruction of opium in 1839

China was ruled by the Daoguang Emperor of the Qing dynasty during the 1830s. The decade witnessed a rapid rise in the sale of opium in China,[2] despite efforts by the Daoguang Emperor to end the trade.[3] A turning point came in 1834, with the end of the monopoly of the British East India Company, leaving trade in the hands of private entrepreneurs. By 1838, opium sales climbed to 40,000 chests.[2][4] In 1839, newly appointed imperial commissioner Lin Zexu banned the sale of opium and imposed several restrictions on all foreign traders. Lin also closed the channel to Guangzhou (Canton), leading to the seizure and destruction of 20,000 chests of opium.[5] The British retaliated, seizing Hong Kong on August 23 of that year, starting what would be known as the First Opium War. It would end three years later with the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.

Japan

Southeastern Asia

Dutch East Indies

The Padri War was fought from 1803 until 1837 in West Sumatra between the Padris and the Adats. The latter asked for the help of the Dutch, who intervened from 1821 and helped the Adats defeat the Padri faction. The conflict intensified in the 1830s, as the war soon centered on Bonjol, the fortified last stronghold of the Padris. It finally fell in 1837[6] after being besieged for three years, and along with the exile of Padri leader Tuanku Imam Bonjol, the conflict died out.

Vietnam

Australia and New Zealand

Southern Asia

India

The British government appointed a series of administrative heads of British India in the 1830s ("Governor-General of India" starting in 1833): Lord William Bentinck (1828-1835), Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bt (1835-1836), and The Lord Auckland (1836-1842). The Government of India Act 1833 was enacted to remove the East India Company's remaining trade monopolies and divested it of all its commercial functions, renewing the Company's political and administrative authority for another twenty years. It invested the Board of Control with full power and authority over the Company.

The English Education Act by the Council of India in 1835 reallocated funds from the East India Company to spend on education and literature in India. In 1837, the British East India company replaced Persian with local vernacular in various provinces as the official and court language. However, in the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Urdu instead of Hindi was chosen to replace Persian.[8][9]

In 1835, William Henry Sleeman captured "Feringhea" in his efforts to suppress the Thuggee secret society. Sleeman's work led to his appointment as General Superintendent of the operations for the Suppression of Thuggee. In February 1839, he assumed charge of the office of Commissioner for the Suppression of Thuggee and Dacoity. During these operations, more than 1400 Thugs were hanged or transported for life.

Western Asia

Eastern Europe

Poland

Northern Europe

United Kingdom

Royalty
June 20: Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837–1901).

In 1830, William IV succeeded his brother George IV as King of the United Kingdom. Upon his death in 1837, his 18-year-old niece Queen Victoria acceded to the throne. where she would reign for more than 63 years.[10] Under Salic law, the Kingdom of Hanover passed to William's brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, ending the personal union of Britain and Hanover which had persisted since 1714. Queen Victoria took up residence in Buckingham Palace, the first reigning British monarch to make this, rather than St James's Palace, her London home.[11]

Politics and Law

Britain had four prime ministers during the 1830s. As the decade began, Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington led parliament. Wellington's government fell in late 1830, failing to react to calls for reform.[12] The Whigs selected Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey to succeed him, who led passage of many reforms, including the Reform Act 1832, the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire), and the Factory Acts (limiting child labour).

In 1834 Grey retired from public life, leaving Lord Melbourne as his successor. Reforms continued under Lord Melbourne, with the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834, which stated that no able-bodied British man could receive assistance unless he entered a workhouse. King William IV's opposition to the Whigs' reforming ways led him to dismiss Melbourne in November and then appoint Sir Robert Peel to form a Tory government. Peel's failure to win a House of Commons majority in the resulting general election (January 1835) made it impossible for him to govern, and the Whigs returned to power under Melbourne in April 1835. The Marriage Act 1836 established civil marriage and registration systems that permit marriages in nonconformist chapels, and a Registrar General of Births, Marriages, and Deaths.[13][14]

There were protests and significant unrest during the decade. In May and June 1831 in Wales, coal miners and others rioted for improved working conditions in what was known as the Merthyr Rising. William Howley Archbishop of Canterbury has his coach attacked by an angry mob on his first official visit to Canterbury in 1832. In 1834, Robert Owen organized the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, an early attempt to form a national union confederation. In May 1838, the People's Charter was drawn up in the United Kingdom, demanding universal suffrage. Chartism continued to gain popularity, leading to the Newport Rising in 1839, the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.

In 1835, James Pratt and John Smith were hanged outside Newgate Prison in London after a conviction of sodomy, the last deadly victims of the judicial persecution of homosexual men in England.[15]

Western Europe

Germany

Austria

Switzerland

Belgium

France

French Revolution of 1830

The French Revolution of 1830 was also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French. It saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans (who would in turn be overthrown in 1848). The revolution ended the Bourbon Restoration, shifting power to the July Monarchy (rule by the House of Orléans). Duc de Broglie briefly served as Prime Minister, with many successors over the course of the decade.

Canut revolts

The first two Canut revolts occurred in the 1830s. They were among the first well-defined worker uprisings of the Industrial Revolution. The word Canut was a common term to describe to all Lyonnais silk workers.

The First Canut revolt in 1831 was provoked by a drop in workers' wages caused by a drop in silk prices. After a bloody battle with the military causing 600 casualties, rebellious silk workers seize Lyon, France. The government sent Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, at the head of an army of 20,000 to restore order. Soult was able to retake the town without any bloodshed, and without making any compromises with the workers. The Second Canut revolt in 1834 occurred when owners attempted to impose a wage decrease. The government crushed the rebellion in a bloody battle, and deported or imprisoned 10,000 insurgents.

Other events

Southern Europe

Ottoman Empire (Balkans)

Greece

Italian Peninsula

Spain

Portugal

Africa

French conquest of Algeria

In 1830, France invaded and quickly seized Ottoman Regency of Algiers, and rapidly took control of other coastal communities. Fighting would continue throughout the decade, with the French pitted against forces under Ahmed Bey at Constantine, primarily in the east, and nationalist forces in Kabylie and the west. The French made treaties with the nationalists under 'Abd al-Qādir, enabling them to capture Constantine in 1837. Al-Qādir continued to give stiff resistance in the west, which lasted throughout the decade (and well into the 1840s, with Al-Qādir surrendering in 1847).

North America

Canada

United States

United States territories and states that forbade or allowed slavery, 1837.
Slavery
Settlement
Native Americans
Presidents
Supreme Court
Other

Texas War of Independence (Texas Revolution)

Republic of Texas

Mexico

Nicaragua

Costa Rica

Puerto Rico

Honduras

South America

Brazil

  • April 7, 1831Pedro I abdicates as emperor of Brazil in favor of his 5-year-old son Pedro II, who will reign for almost 59 years.
  • November 7, 1831 – Slave trading is forbidden in Brazil.
  • 1834 – In the Empire of Brazil, the Additional Act provides:
    • Establishment of the Provincial Legislative Assembly
    • Extinction of the State Council
    • Replacement of the Regency Trina
    • Introduction of a direct and secret ballot.

Riograndense Republic

Uruguay

Argentina

Falkland Islands

Peru

Ecuador

Chile

Other Languages
العربية: عقد 1830
aragonés: Anyos 1830
asturianu: Década del 1830
Bân-lâm-gú: 1830 nî-tāi
беларуская: 1830-я
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: 1830-я
bosanski: 1830-e
Чӑвашла: 1830-мĕш çулсем
Cymraeg: 1830au
dansk: 1830'erne
davvisámegiella: 1830-lohku
Deutsch: 1830er
emiliàn e rumagnòl: An 1830
эрзянь: 1830 це иеть
español: Años 1830
Esperanto: 1830-aj jaroj
Fiji Hindi: 1830s
føroyskt: 1830-árini
français: Années 1830
Gaeilge: 1830í
Gàidhlig: 1830an
贛語: 1830年代
한국어: 1830년대
hrvatski: 1830-ih
Bahasa Indonesia: 1830-an
Ирон: 1830-тæ
íslenska: 1831-1840
italiano: Anni 1830
Basa Jawa: 1830-an
ქართული: 1830-იანები
қазақша: 1830 жж.
Kiswahili: Miaka ya 1830
Latina: Anni 1830
македонски: 1830-ти
Bahasa Melayu: 1830-an
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 1830 nièng-dâi
Nederlands: 1830-1839
日本語: 1830年代
Nouormand: Annaées 1830
олык марий: 1830 ийла
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: 1830-lar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: 1830 ਦਾ ਦਹਾਕਾ
português: Década de 1830
română: Anii 1830
Runa Simi: 1830 watakuna
русский: 1830-е годы
саха тыла: 1830-с
Sesotho sa Leboa: 1830s
shqip: Vitet 1830
sicilianu: 1830ini
Simple English: 1830s
slovenščina: 1830.
српски / srpski: 1830-е
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1830-e
Basa Sunda: 1830-an
suomi: 1830-luku
svenska: 1830-talet
தமிழ்: 1830கள்
татарча/tatarça: 1830-еллар
Türkmençe: 1830ýý
українська: 1830-ті
Tiếng Việt: Thập niên 1830
ייִדיש: 1830ער
粵語: 1830年代
中文: 1830年代