supervising the destruction of opium in 1839
China was ruled by the Daoguang Emperor of the Qing dynasty during the 1830s. The decade witnessed a rapid rise in the sale of opium in China, despite efforts by the Daoguang Emperor to end the trade. A turning point came in 1834, with the end of the monopoly of the British East India Company, leaving trade in the hands of private entrepreneurs. By 1838, opium sales climbed to 40,000 chests. In 1839, newly appointed imperial commissioner Lin Zexu banned the sale of opium and imposed several restrictions on all foreign traders. Lin also closed the channel to Guangzhou (Canton), leading to the seizure and destruction of 20,000 chests of opium. The British retaliated, seizing Hong Kong on August 23 of that year, starting what would be known as the First Opium War. It would end three years later with the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.
Dutch East Indies
The Padri War was fought from 1803 until 1837 in West Sumatra between the Padris and the Adats. The latter asked for the help of the Dutch, who intervened from 1821 and helped the Adats defeat the Padri faction. The conflict intensified in the 1830s, as the war soon centered on Bonjol, the fortified last stronghold of the Padris. It finally fell in 1837 after being besieged for three years, and along with the exile of Padri leader Tuanku Imam Bonjol, the conflict died out.
Australia and New Zealand
- The various Maori chieftains of Northland region of North Island proclaim their independence as the United Tribes of New Zealand, under the guidance of James Bubsby. The British Crown immediately recognizes their claim.
- August 15, 1834 – The South Australia Act allows for the creation of a colony there.
- June 8, 1835 – The Australian city of Melbourne is founded by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner.
- October 28, 1835 – United Tribes of New Zealand founded at Waitangi with the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand.
- November 19, 1835 – A force of 500 Māori people invade and enslave the peoples of the Chatham Islands.
- July 27, 1836 – Adelaide, South Australia, is founded.
- December 26, 1836 – The colony of South Australia is officially proclaimed (now celebrated in the state of South Australia as Proclamation Day).
- December 28, 1836 – Colony of South Australia founded by Captain John Hindmarsh
- June 10, 1838 – 28 Indigenous Australians are killed in the Myall Creek Massacre.
- 1838 – Five nuns from the Religious Sisters of Charity in Ireland become the first women of religion to set foot on Australian soil.
The British government appointed a series of administrative heads of British India in the 1830s ("Governor-General of India" starting in 1833): Lord William Bentinck (1828-1835), Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bt (1835-1836), and The Lord Auckland (1836-1842). The Government of India Act 1833 was enacted to remove the East India Company's remaining trade monopolies and divested it of all its commercial functions, renewing the Company's political and administrative authority for another twenty years. It invested the Board of Control with full power and authority over the Company.
The English Education Act by the Council of India in 1835 reallocated funds from the East India Company to spend on education and literature in India. In 1837, the British East India company replaced Persian with local vernacular in various provinces as the official and court language. However, in the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Urdu instead of Hindi was chosen to replace Persian.
In 1835, William Henry Sleeman captured "Feringhea" in his efforts to suppress the Thuggee secret society. Sleeman's work led to his appointment as General Superintendent of the operations for the Suppression of Thuggee. In February 1839, he assumed charge of the office of Commissioner for the Suppression of Thuggee and Dacoity. During these operations, more than 1400 Thugs were hanged or transported for life.
In 1830, William IV succeeded his brother George IV as King of the United Kingdom. Upon his death in 1837, his 18-year-old niece Queen Victoria acceded to the throne. where she would reign for more than 63 years. Under Salic law, the Kingdom of Hanover passed to William's brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, ending the personal union of Britain and Hanover which had persisted since 1714. Queen Victoria took up residence in Buckingham Palace, the first reigning British monarch to make this, rather than St James's Palace, her London home.
Politics and Law
Britain had four prime ministers during the 1830s. As the decade began, Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington led parliament. Wellington's government fell in late 1830, failing to react to calls for reform. The Whigs selected Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey to succeed him, who led passage of many reforms, including the Reform Act 1832, the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire), and the Factory Acts (limiting child labour).
In 1834 Grey retired from public life, leaving Lord Melbourne as his successor. Reforms continued under Lord Melbourne, with the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834, which stated that no able-bodied British man could receive assistance unless he entered a workhouse. King William IV's opposition to the Whigs' reforming ways led him to dismiss Melbourne in November and then appoint Sir Robert Peel to form a Tory government. Peel's failure to win a House of Commons majority in the resulting general election (January 1835) made it impossible for him to govern, and the Whigs returned to power under Melbourne in April 1835. The Marriage Act 1836 established civil marriage and registration systems that permit marriages in nonconformist chapels, and a Registrar General of Births, Marriages, and Deaths.
There were protests and significant unrest during the decade. In May and June 1831 in Wales, coal miners and others rioted for improved working conditions in what was known as the Merthyr Rising. William Howley Archbishop of Canterbury has his coach attacked by an angry mob on his first official visit to Canterbury in 1832. In 1834, Robert Owen organized the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, an early attempt to form a national union confederation. In May 1838, the People's Charter was drawn up in the United Kingdom, demanding universal suffrage. Chartism continued to gain popularity, leading to the Newport Rising in 1839, the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.
In 1835, James Pratt and John Smith were hanged outside Newgate Prison in London after a conviction of sodomy, the last deadly victims of the judicial persecution of homosexual men in England.
- May 30, 1832 – Germany: Hambacher Fest, a demonstration for civil liberties and national unity, ends with no result.
- December 14, 1833 – Kaspar Hauser, a mysterious German youth, is stabbed, dying three days later on December 17.
- January 1, 1834 – Zollverein: Customs charges are abolished at borders within Germany.
- October 13, 1836 – Theodor Fliedner, a Lutheran minister, and Friederike, his wife, open the Deaconess Home and Hospital at Kaiserswerth, Germany, as an institute to train women in nursing.
- The 5th century BC Berlin Foundry Cup is acquired for the Antikensammlung Berlin in Germany.
- August 25, 1830 – The Belgian Revolution begins.
- September 27, 1830 – The Belgian Revolution ends by liberating Brussels from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
- October 4, 1830 – The Provisional Government in Brussels declares the creation of the independent state of Belgium, in revolt against the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
- December 20, 1830 – The independence of Belgium is recognized by the Great Powers.
- July 21, 1831 – Léopold I of Belgium is inaugurated as first king of the Belgians.
- August 2, 1831 – The Dutch ten-day campaign in Belgium is halted by a French army.
- December 4, 1832 – Battle of Antwerp: The last remaining Dutch enforcement, the citadel, is under French attack.
- December 23, 1832 – The Battle of Antwerp ends with the Netherlands losing the city.
- 1839 – Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands (since 1839 there is a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg).
- April 19, 1839 – The Treaty of London establishes Belgium as a kingdom.
French Revolution of 1830
The French Revolution of 1830 was also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French. It saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans (who would in turn be overthrown in 1848). The revolution ended the Bourbon Restoration, shifting power to the July Monarchy (rule by the House of Orléans). Duc de Broglie briefly served as Prime Minister, with many successors over the course of the decade.
The first two Canut revolts occurred in the 1830s. They were among the first well-defined worker uprisings of the Industrial Revolution. The word Canut was a common term to describe to all Lyonnais silk workers.
The First Canut revolt in 1831 was provoked by a drop in workers' wages caused by a drop in silk prices. After a bloody battle with the military causing 600 casualties, rebellious silk workers seize Lyon, France. The government sent Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, at the head of an army of 20,000 to restore order. Soult was able to retake the town without any bloodshed, and without making any compromises with the workers. The Second Canut revolt in 1834 occurred when owners attempted to impose a wage decrease. The government crushed the rebellion in a bloody battle, and deported or imprisoned 10,000 insurgents.
Ottoman Empire (Balkans)
- September 29, 1833 – Three-year-old Isabella II becomes Queen of Spain, under the regency of her mother, Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Her uncle Don Carlos, Conde de Molina challenges her claim, beginning the First Carlist War.
- July 15, 1834 – The Spanish Inquisition, which began in the 15th century, is suppressed by royal decree.
- September 1837 – Battle of Aranzueque: Liberal victory for the forces loyal to Queen Isabel II of Spain, end of the Carlist campaign known as the
Expedición Real – The First Carlist War.
- October 1, 1838 – Supporters of Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, are victorious in the Battle of Maella during the First Carlist War.
- August 31, 1839 – The First Carlist war (Spain) ends with the Convenio de Vergara, also known as the Abrazo de Vergara ("the embrace in Vergara"; Bergara in Basque), between liberal general Baldomero Espartero, Count of Luchana and Carlist General Rafael Maroto.
French conquest of Algeria
In 1830, France invaded and quickly seized Ottoman Regency of Algiers, and rapidly took control of other coastal communities. Fighting would continue throughout the decade, with the French pitted against forces under Ahmed Bey at Constantine, primarily in the east, and nationalist forces in Kabylie and the west. The French made treaties with the nationalists under 'Abd al-Qādir, enabling them to capture Constantine in 1837. Al-Qādir continued to give stiff resistance in the west, which lasted throughout the decade (and well into the 1840s, with Al-Qādir surrendering in 1847).
United States territories and states that forbade or allowed slavery, 1837.
- January 1, 1831 – William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing The Liberator, an antislavery newspaper, in Boston, Massachusetts.
- August 21, 1831 – USA: Nat Turner's slave rebellion breaks out in Southampton County, Virginia.
- September 19, 1835 – William Lloyd Garrison publishes Angelina Grimké's anti-slavery letter in The Liberator.
- November 7, 1837 – American abolitionist and newspaper editor Elijah Lovejoy is killed by a pro-slavery mob, at his warehouse in Alton, Illinois.
- July 1, 1839 – Slaves aboard the Amistad rebel and capture the ship off the coast of Cuba. Under direction to sail the ship to Africa, the crew sailed the ship to Long Island, New York, where the slaves were taken into custody by the U.S. Navy. The slaves would later win the right to return to Africa in United States v. The Amistad.
- May 28, 1830 – The United States Congress passes the Indian Removal Act.
- April 6, 1832 – The Black Hawk War begins.
- July 9, 1832 – Commissioner of Indian Affairs post created within the War Department.
- August 2, 1832 – Bad Axe Massacre ends the last major Native American rebellion east of the Mississippi in the U.S.
- 1832 – George Catlin starts to live among the Sioux in the Dakota Territory.
- 1832 – The federal government establishes a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans (The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832).
- July 29, 1834 – Office of Indian Affairs organized in the United States.
- December 28, 1835 – USA: The Second Seminole War breaks out.
- December 29, 1835 – The Treaty of New Echota is signed between the United States Government and members of the Cherokee Nation.
- 1835 – Fort Cass is established, the military headquarters and site of the largest internment camps during the 1838 Trail of Tears.
- May 19, 1836 – Fort Parker massacre: Among those captured by Native Americans is nine-year-old Cynthia Ann Parker; she later gives birth to a son named Quanah, who becomes the last chief of the Comanche.
- 1836 – George Catlin ends his 6-year tour of 50 tribes in the Dakota Territory.
- February 4, 1837 – Seminoles attack Fort Foster in Florida.
- May 26, 1838 – USA: The people of the Cherokee Nation are forcibly relocated during the Trail of Tears.
- December 3, 1832 – U.S. presidential election, 1832: Andrew Jackson is re-elected president.
- March 4, 1833 – Andrew Jackson is sworn in for his second term as President of the United States.
- May 6, 1833 – In Alexandria, Virginia, the first public physical attack on an American President, with Andrew Jackson struck by a disgruntled Robert B. Randolph, who was dismissed from the navy by Jackson for embezzlement. Though the assailant was immediately apprehended, Jackson decided not to press charges.
- March 27, 1834 – Andrew Jackson is censured by the Congress of the United States (expunged in 1837).
- January 30, 1835 – An assassination is attempted against President Andrew Jackson in the United States Capitol (the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States).
- December 7, 1835 – Future U.S. President James K. Polk becomes Speaker of the House
- December 4, 1836 – Whig Party holds its first national convention, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
- December 7, 1836 – United States presidential election, 1836: Martin Van Buren defeats William Henry Harrison.
- March 4, 1837 – Martin Van Buren succeeds Andrew Jackson as President of the United States.
- November 14, 1832 – Charles Carroll, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence dies at his home in Maryland at age 95.
- April 14, 1834 – The Whig Party is officially named by United States Senator Henry Clay.
- August 11–August 12, 1834 – Ursuline Convent Riots: A convent of Ursuline nuns is burned near Boston.
- January 8, 1835 – The United States public debt contracts to $0 for the only time in history
- 1835 – Edward Strutt Abdy publishes his Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States of North America: From April, 1833, to October 1834.
- May 10, 1837 – The Panic of 1837 begins in New York City.
- June 11, 1837 – The Broad Street Riot occurs in Boston, Massachusetts, fueled by ethnic tensions between the Irish and the Yankees.
- 1839 – the first state law permitting women to own property is passed in Jackson, Mississippi.
Texas War of Independence (Texas Revolution)
- October 2, 1835 –
Province of Tejas, Northern Mexico, – Battle of Gonzales: Under orders from Mexican President-turned dictator, General Antonio López de Santa Anna, Mexican soldiers attempt to capture a cannon that the Mexican government had earlier provided to the settlers of Gonzales, Texas for protection against hostile Indians, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia. This became known as the "Come-and-Take-it" skirmish.
- December 9, 1835 – Texian "army" volunteers, under General Burleson, capture the town of San Antonio de Bejar from the Mexican forces occupying the town under General Martin Perfecto de Cos.
- December 20, 1835 – A Texas Declaration of Independence is first signed at Goliad, Texas.
- January 5, 1836 – David Crockett arrives in Texas.
- February 23, 1836 – The Siege of the Alamo begins, with a Texian army under the command of Lt Colonel
Willam B. Travis and volunteers under Colonel James Bowie, hastily fortifying and defending the Alamo against the Mexican Army under Santa Anna.
- March 1, 1836 – Convention of 1836: Delegates from several Texian settlements gather in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate and vote on independence from Mexico.
- March 2 – Convention of 1836: The Texas Declaration of Independence is signed by 60 delegates and the Republic of Texas is declared. Sam Houston is elected as Commanding General of the Texian "Army".
- March 6, 1836 – The Battle of the Alamo ends the 13-day siege; approximately 200 defenders (Anglo settlers & Tejano townsfolk) die in a fierce struggle with approximately 5,000 Mexican soldiers.
- March 17, 1836 – Convention of 1836: Delegates adopt the Constitution of the Republic of Texas, modeled after the United States Constitution. It allows slavery, requires free blacks to petition Congress to live in the country, but prohibits import of slaves from anywhere but the United States.
- March 27, 1836 – On Palm Sunday, 342 Texian prisoners captured a week earlier are shot and killed in the Goliad Massacre along with Texian Colonel James Walker Fannin by Mexican troops in Goliad near the Presidio La Bahia during the Texas Revolution.
- April 21, 1836 – Battle of San Jacinto: Mexican forces under General Santa Anna are defeated in a battle lasting 18 minutes by the San Jacinto River, Texas. (General Houston is wounded during the battle, and is later relieved of command by interim President David G. Burnet. This action enables Houston to recover from his wounds.)
- April 22, 1836 – Forces under Texian General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna who had attempted to escape during the chaos of the battle the previous day. Capturing Santa Anna guarantees Texas independence from Mexico.
Republic of Texas
- April 7, 1831 – Pedro I abdicates as emperor of Brazil in favor of his 5-year-old son Pedro II, who will reign for almost 59 years.
- November 7, 1831 – Slave trading is forbidden in Brazil.
- 1834 – In the Empire of Brazil, the Additional Act provides:
- Establishment of the Provincial Legislative Assembly
- Extinction of the State Council
- Replacement of the Regency Trina
- Introduction of a direct and secret ballot.