1800s (decade)

Millennium: 2nd millennium
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The 1800s decade lasted from January 1, 1800, to December 31, 1809.

Politics and wars

This decade saw the rise of Napoleon I, who led the French army to conquer a substantial portion of Europe during this time.

Napoleonic Wars

The European political landscape was dominated by the Napoleonic Wars, a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's First French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription. French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe by the end of the decade. The decade brought hard times.

On 9 November 1799 ( 18 Brumaire), Napoleon overthrew the French government, replacing it with the Consulate, in which he was First Consul. On 2 December 1804, after a failed assassination plot, he crowned himself Emperor. In 1805, Napoleon planned to invade Britain, but a renewed British alliance with Russia and Austria ( Third Coalition), forced him to turn his attention towards the continent, while at the same time failure to lure the superior British fleet away from the English Channel, ending in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October put an end to hopes of an invasion of Britain. On 2 December 1805, Napoleon defeated a numerically superior Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz, forcing Austria's withdrawal from the coalition (see Treaty of Pressburg) and dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, a Fourth Coalition was set up, on 14 October Napoleon defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, marched through Germany and defeated the Russians on 14 June 1807 at Friedland. The Treaties of Tilsit divided Europe between France and Russia and created the Duchy of Warsaw.

The War of the Fifth Coalition, fought in the year 1809, pitted a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against the French Empire and Bavaria. Major engagements between France and Austria, the main participants, unfolded over much of Central Europe from April to July, with very high casualty rates. Britain, already involved on the European continent in the ongoing Peninsular War, sent another expedition, the Walcheren Campaign, to the Netherlands in order to relieve the Austrians, although this effort had little impact on the outcome of the conflict. After much campaigning in Bavaria and across the Danube valley, the war ended favorably for the French after the bloody struggle at Wagram in early July, resulting in the Treaty of Schönbrunn . Although fighting in the Iberian Peninsula continued, the War of the Fifth Coalition was the last major conflict on the European continent until the French invasion of Russia in 1812 sparked the Sixth Coalition.

Other wars and political upheavals

Slavery

This decade marked the height of the Atlantic slave trade to the United States. During the period of 1798 and 1808, approximately 200,000 slaves were imported from Africa to the United States. [1] Still, the abolitionist movement began to gain ground in this period. Britain enacted the Slave Trade Act 1807, which barred the trade of slaves in Great Britain (though slavery was still legal). The United States enacted a similar ban in 1808. [2] However, Napoleon revoked the French Empire's ban on slavery with the Law of 20 May 1802.

Prominent political events

World leaders

Colonies

Other Languages
العربية: عقد 1800
aragonés: Anyos 1800
asturianu: Década del 1800
Bân-lâm-gú: 1800 nî-tāi
беларуская: 1800-я
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: 1800-я
bosanski: 1800te
Чӑвашла: 1800-мĕш çулсем
Cymraeg: 1800au
dansk: 1800'erne
Deutsch: 1800er
эрзянь: 1800 це иеть
español: Años 1800
Esperanto: 1800-aj jaroj
Fiji Hindi: 1800s
føroyskt: 1800-árini
français: Années 1800
Gaeilge: 1800í
Gaelg: 1800yn
Gàidhlig: 1800an
贛語: 1800年代
한국어: 1800년대
hrvatski: 1800-ih
Bahasa Indonesia: 1800-an
Ирон: 1800-тæ
íslenska: 1801-1810
italiano: Anni 1800
Basa Jawa: 1800-an
ქართული: 1800-იანები
Kiswahili: Miaka ya 1800
македонски: 1800-ти
Bahasa Melayu: 1800-an
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 1800 nièng-dâi
Nāhuatl: 1800 xiuhtin
Nederlands: 1800-1809
日本語: 1800年代
Nouormand: Annaées 1800
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: 1800-lar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: 1800 ਦਾ ਦਹਾਕਾ
português: Década de 1800
română: Anii 1800
Runa Simi: 1800 watakuna
русский: 1800-е годы
саха тыла: 1800-с
sámegiella: 1800-lohku
Sesotho sa Leboa: 1800s
shqip: Vitet 1800
sicilianu: 1800ini
Simple English: 1800s
slovenščina: 1800.
српски / srpski: 1800-е
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1800–1809
Basa Sunda: 1800-an
தமிழ்: 1800கள்
татарча/tatarça: 1800-еллар
Türkçe: 1800'ler
Türkmençe: 1800–1809
українська: 1800-ті
Tiếng Việt: Thập niên 1800
粵語: 1800年代
中文: 1800年代