- July 9 – Traveller Jonas Hanway leaves St. Petersburg to return home, via Germany and the Netherlands. Later the same year, Hanway reputedly becomes the first Englishman to use an umbrella (a French fashion).
- July 11 – Halifax, Nova Scotia is almost completely destroyed by fire.
- July 31 – José I takes over the throne of Portugal from his deceased father, João V. King José Manuel appoints the Marquis of Pombal as his Chief Minister, who then strips the Inquisition of its power.
- August 23 – A small earthquake hits Spalding, Lincolnshire, England.
- September 30 – A small earthquake hits Northampton, England.
- November 11 – A riot breaks out in Lhasa, Tibet, after the murder of the regent of Tibet.
- November 18 – Westminster Bridge is officially opened in London.
- Hannah Snell reveals her sex to her Royal Marines compatriots.
- The King of Dahomey has income of 250,000 pounds from the overseas export of slaves.
- Maruyama Okyo paints The Ghost of Oyuki.
- Britain produces c. 2% of the entire world's output of industrial goods, and the Industrial Revolution begins.
- Galley slavery is abolished in Europe.
- World population: 791,000,000
- Africa: 106,000,000
- Asia: 502,000,000
- Europe: 163,000,000
- Latin-America: 16,000,000
- Northern America: 2,000,000
- Oceania: 2,000,000
- January 1 – The British Empire (except Scotland, which had changed New Year's Day to 1 January in 1600) adopts today as the first day of the year as part of adoption of the Gregorian calendar, which is completed in September: today is the first day of the New Year under the terms of last year's Calendar Act of the British Parliament.
- February 11 – Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the United States, is opened.
- February 27 – The Virginia Assembly passes a law making maiming a felony, in response to the practice of gouging.
- February 29 – Alaungpaya, a village chief in Upper Burma, founds the Konbaung Dynasty; by the time of his death 8 years later, he will have unified the whole country.
- March 23 – The Halifax Gazette, the first Canadian newspaper, is published.
- May 10— At Marly-la-Ville in France, physicist Thomas-François Dalibard successfully conducts the kite experiment proposed by Benjamin Franklin in the 1750 book Franklin's Experiments and Observations on Electricity. 
- June 6 – Fire destroys 18,000 houses in Moscow, Russia.
- June 15 – Benjamin Franklin proves that lightning is electricity, by his kite experiment.
- September 2 of Julian calendar (Wednesday) – Great Britain and the British Empire adopt the Gregorian calendar, making the next day Thursday September 14 of the Gregorian calendar.
- September–December – Jovan Šević leads a group of Serb immigrants from Pomorišje to Kiev.
- October 19 — In his Philadelphia newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette, Benjamin Franklin first describes the performance, in Philadelphia of the kite experiment that he had proposed in his 1750 book. Although the original account makes no claim that he was the first to do the experiment (which had been done by other scientists (including Thomas-François Dalibard in May), nor that he conducted the test, and it does not give a date for the experiment, it becomes embellished as the story that Franklin "discovered electricity"; in 1766, the story first circulates that Franklin flew the kite in June, 1752, without specifying a date (as Franklin had done in other scientific accounts). 
- Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, the oldest property insurance company in the United States, is organized as a mutual organisation by Benjamin Franklin; it continues in existence into the 21st century.
- Adam Smith transfers to professor of moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow.
- English scientist Lord John Davies first observes what is later recognised as respiratory collapse.
- January 25 (Tatiana Day) – Moscow University is established.
- February 13 – The kingdom of Mataram on Java is divided in two, creating the sultanate of Yogyakarta and the sunanate of Surakarta.
- February 20 – General Braddock lands in Virginia, to take command of the British forces against the French in North America.
- April 2 – A naval fleet, led by Commodore William James of the East India Company, captures Tulaji Angre's fortress Suvarnadurg from the Marathas.
- April 15 – A Dictionary of the English Language is published by Samuel Johnson (he had begun the work 9 years earlier, in 1746).
- June 5 – Scottish chemist Joseph Black describes his discovery of carbon dioxide (fixed air) and magnesium, in a paper to the Medical Society of Edinburgh. The paper is published in 1756 with the title Experiments upon Magnesia alba, Quicklime, and some other alkaline Substances. 
- June 16 – After a 2-week siege, the French commander of Fort Beauséjour in North America surrenders to the British, marking the end of "Father Le Loutre's War".
- July 9 – French and Indian War – Braddock Expedition: British troops and colonial militiamen are ambushed, and suffer a devastating defeat inflicted by French and Indian forces. During the battle, British General Edward Braddock is mortally wounded. Colonel George Washington survives.
- July 17 – In a convoy of ships from Great Britain, returning to India for the East India Company, the lead ship Dodington wrecks at Port Elizabeth, losing a chest of gold coins from Robert Clive, worth £33,000. In 1998, 1,400 coins are offered for sale, and in 2002 a portion is given to the South African government.
- July 25 – The decision to deport the Acadians is made, during meetings of the Nova Scotia Council meeting in Halifax. From September 1755-June 1763, the vast majority of Acadians are deported to one of the following British Colonies in America: Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Contrary to popular belief, no Acadians are sent to Louisiana. Those sent to Virginia are refused and then sent on to Liverpool, Bristol, Southampton and Penryn in England. In 1758 the Fortress of Louisbourg falls, and all of the civilian population of Isle Royal (Cape Breton Island) and Isle St. Jean (Prince Edward Island) are repatriated to France. Among them were several thousand Acadians, who had escaped the deportation by fleeing into those areas. Very few Acadians successfully escape the deportation, and do so only by fleeing into some of the northern sections of present day New Brunswick. The event inspires Longfellow to write the epic poem Evangeline.
- August 10 – The Expulsion of the Acadians begins, with the Bay of Fundy Campaign.
- November 1 – 1755 Lisbon earthquake: In Portugal, Lisbon is destroyed by a massive earthquake and tsunami, killing 60,000–90,000 people.
- November 18 – An earthquake occurs in the vicinity of Cape Ann, Massachusetts, causing extensive damage.
- November 25 – King Ferdinand VI of Spain grants the Religious of the Virgin Mary in the Philippines royal protection.
- December 2 – The second Eddystone Lighthouse off the coast of England is destroyed by fire.
- Wolsey, the clothes manufacturer, is established in Leicester, England; the business celebrates its 250th anniversary in 2005.
- Construction of the Puning Temple complex in Chengde, China is completed, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
- Construction of St Ninian's Church, Tynet, Scotland, the country's oldest surviving post-Reformation Roman Catholic clandestine church, is completed.
- The brine shrimp Artemia salina is first described, in Linnaeus' Systema Naturæ.
- January 16 – The Treaty of Westminster is signed between Great Britain and Prussia, guaranteeing the neutrality of the German province of Hanover, controlled by King George II of Great Britain.
- February 10 – The massacre of the Guaraní rebels in the Jesuit reduction of Caaibaté takes place in Brazil after their leader, Noicola Neenguiru, defies an ultimatum to surrender by 2:00 in the afternoon.  Three days earlier, on February 7, Neenguiru's predecessor Sepé Tiaraju had been killed in a brief skirmish. As two o'clock arrives, a combined force of Spanish and Portuguese troops makes an assault on the first of the Seven Towns established as Jesuit missions. Defending their town with cannons made out of bamboo, the Guaraní suffer 1,511 dead, compared to three Spaniards and two Portuguese killed in battle. 
- February 14 – The Maratha Navy that has controlled the western coast of India for the Maratha Empire for more than a century, is destroyed in the Battle of Vijaydurg by British attackers fighting for the East India Company. On orders of Royal Navy Admiral Charles Watson, the Royal Navy captures a Maratha ship (the former British warship HMS Restoration), sets it on fire, and then floats the burning vessel into the Vijaydurg Port where most of Maratha Admiral Tulaji Angre's ships are anchored. The fire soon spreads to the other ships, destroying one large warship armed with 74 cannon, eight gurabs of 200 tonnes apiece, and sixty galbat ships. 
- March 17 – St. Patrick's Day is celebrated in New York City for the first time (at the Crown and Thistle Tavern).
- January 2 – Seven Years' War: The British Army, under the command of Robert Clive, captures Calcutta in India. SarDesa pp218-219
- January 5 – Robert-François Damiens makes an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Louis XV of France, who is slightly wounded by the knife attack. On March 28 Damiens is publicly executed by burning and dismemberment, the last person in France to suffer this punishment. 
- February 1 – King Louis XV of France dismisses his two most influential advisers. His Secretary of State for War, the Comte d'Argenson and the Secretary of the Navy, Jean-Baptiste de Machault d'Arnouville, are both removed from office at the urging of the King's mistress, Madame de Pompadour. 
- February 2 – At Versailles in France, representatives of the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire enter into an alliance against Prussia, with each nation pledging 80,000 troops.  Other clauses to the treaty, not disclosed to the public, commit Austria to pay Russia one million rubles per year during the war to pay for the expenses of 24,000 of the Russian troops, and two million rubles upon the conquest of Silesia (an Prussian province that had been seized from Austria in 1746). 
- February 3 – French artist Robert Picault begins the rescue of the frescoes at the King's Chamber of the Palace of Fontainebleau before architect Ange-Jacques Gabrel begins renovations. 
- February 5 – The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, leads an attempt to retake Calcutta from the British. With just 1,900 soldiers and sailors, but superior cannon power, General Robert Clive forces the Nawab's much larger force into a retreat. The British sustain 194 casualties, but the Bengalis suffer 1,300. 
- February 9 – The Nawab and General Clive sign the Treaty of Alinagar, with Bengal compensating the British East India Company for its losses and pledging respect for British control of India. 
- February 22 – King Frederick V of Denmark issues an order to create a Lutheran mission for African slaves at the Danish West Indies (now the United States Virgin Islands) at St. Croix. 
- February 23 – A revolt against the government of King Joseph I of Portugal takes place in the city of Oporto. After the riot's suppression, King Joao's minister, the Marquis of Pombal (Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo) , orders a harsh punishment against the perpetrators. Of 478 people arrested, 442 of them (including 50 women and young boys) are condemned to various sentences carried out in October. 
- March 14 — British Royal Navy Admiral John Byng is executed by a firing squad after his court martial conviction for failing to save British troops who had been besieged by a numerically superior French force at the Battle of Minorca.  General Edward Cornwallis, the ranking British Army officer at the battle, is exonerated of charges of dereliction of duty, but his career is ruined.
- March 21 – Sweden signs an alliance treaty with France and Austria in the multinational effort to remove King Frederick the Great, even though Queen Consort Ulrika of Sweden is Frederick's sister. Sweden agrees to contribute 25,000 troops to the French and Austrian force. 
- March 23 – The British East India Company takes control of Chandannagar and forces out the French Indian administrators. 
- March 28 – Robert Francois Damiens is burned to death in public for his January 5 assassination attempt on King Louis XV of Frace. 
- March 30 – The Rigshospitalet, national hospital of Denmark, is founded at Copenhagen. 
- April 6 – William Pitt is dismissed from the government King George II to depart from the British government after several military reverses in Britain's fight against France in America. After a public outcry, Pitt is called back to conduct Britain's foreign and military affairs and given greater control. 
- April 16 –
- April 17 – The Spanish mission of Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá is founded by Spanish missionary families on the banks of the San Saba River near present day Menard, Texas.  Less than two years later, the European settlement is destroyed by the native Comanche Indians who live in the area.
- April 29 – Inside a house at Stratford-upon-Avon in England, a bricklayer, identified only as "Mosely", discovers the testament of John Shakespeare, father of William Shakespeare, more than 150-years after the elder's death. The finding, done while Mosely is re-tiling the roof of what is now called Shakespeare's Birthplace, starts "what remains one of the most controversial topics in Shakespeare studies" because of disagreements over its authenticity. 
- May 1 – France and Austria sign a second treaty of alliance at Versailles, committing France to sending an additional 105,000 troops to the war against Prussia, and to pay expenses to Austria at the rate of 12 million florins annually. 
- May 6 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Prague: Frederick the Great defeats an Austrian army, and begins to besiege the city.
- June 18 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Kolín: Frederick is defeated by an Austrian army under Marshal Daun, forcing him to evacuate Bohemia.
- June 23 – Battle of Plassey: 3,000 troops serving with the British East India Company under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000 strong Indian army under Siraj ud-Daulah through conspiracy, at Plassey, India, marking the first victory of the East India Company upon India.
- June 25 – The Duke of Devonshire resigns as Prime Minister of Great Britain after being unable to conduct governmental affairs without William Pitt.
- June 25 – The 1755 rebellion against the Chinese Empire by Mongolian Oirat Prince Amursana is met by a Chinese army of 10,000 attackers against Amursana's 2,500 man force at their capital at Bor Tal. The rebels are able to hold out for 17 days before being routed. 
- July 17 – Amursana's Mongolian rebellion against the Chinese Empire is crushed after a battle of 17 days, and the survivors flee to Russia, where Amursana unsuccessfully seeks Russian aid. 
- July 26 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Hastenbeck: An Anglo-Hanoverian army under the Duke of Cumberland is defeated by the French under Louis d'Estrées, and forced out of Hanover.
- August 3 – August 9 – French and Indian War: A French army under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm forces the English to surrender Fort William Henry. The French army's Indian allies slaughter the survivors for unclear reasons.
- August 11 – In the Battle of Delhi, the capital city of the Mughal Empire is retaken by Maratha Empire leader Raghunathrao from Najib ad-Dawlah, who flees to refuge in the royal palace, the Red Fort. 
- August 30 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf: A Prussian army under Hans von Lehwaldt is defeated by the Russian army of Marshal Stepan Apraksin.
- September 6 – The life of Najib ad-Dawlah is spared by Raghunathrao upon the intercession of General Malhar Rao Holkar. Najib and his family are permitted to leave the Fort along with most of their property, and the Emperor Alamgir II is restored the Mughal throne as a nominal ruler. 
- September 8 – The Convention of Klosterzeven is signed at the Lower Saxony town of Bremervörde by the Duke of Cumberland following his defeat at the July 26 Battle of Hastenbeck by the French Army Marshal, the Duke of Richelieu. The treaty provides for the Army of the Electorate of Hanover to be reduced to a token force and for the French Army to occupy Hanover and most of what is now northwest Germany.  At the time, King George II of Great Britain is also the Elector of Hanover, and it is later said that "The terms proved worse than either George or his ministers had wanted or expected." 
- September 13 – A column of troops from Sweden begins the surprise invasion of Prussia, setting up a pontoon bridge across the Peene River that marks the boundary between Swedish Pomerania and northern Prussia. After crossing at Loitz in the early morning hours, the troops march 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and begin the occupation of the undefended Prussian town of Demmin. Hours later, another Swedish infantry regiment charges across the border into the Prussian town of Anklam, where the city gate had been left open. 
- September 23 – The "Raid on Rochefort" is carried out as a pre-emptive strike by Great Britain to neutralize France's Arsenal de Rochefort before the French Navy can carry out plans to invade England. Led by Royal Navy Admiral Edward Hawke, HMS Neptune and six other vessels sail in and capture the Île-d'Aix and its battery of cannons, effectively blocking the departure of any ships from the mouth of the Charante river. 
- October 14 – Of the 442 men, women and children who are convicted for their roles in the Oporto riot in February, 13 men and one woman are hanged; afterward, their bodies are then quartered and the severed limbs are publicly displayed on spikes. Another 49 men and 10 women are exiled at Portuguese colonies in Africa and India, and the others are either flogged, imprisoned or pressed into service rowing galley ships. 
- October 16 – Seven Years' War: Hungarian raiders plunder Berlin, Prussia.
- October 24 – 1757 Hajj caravan raid: Led by Bedouin warriors of the Beni Sakhr tribe conducts a massive assault against a caravan of thousands of Muslim travelers who are on their way back to Damascus after the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The attack, made at Hallat Ammar after the group has been resupplied at Tabuk, leads to the annihilation of 20,000 of the pilgrims. Those who are not killed outright die later in the desert from thirst and starvation.  According to one Arabic source, the largest attack takes place on 10 Safar 1171 A.H. (October 24, 1757)
- October 30 – Osman III dies, and is succeeded as Ottoman Sultan by Mustafa III.
- October 31 – News of the massacre of Muslim pilgrims first reaches Damascus; the officials who had been in charge of protecting the pilgrimage are executed by beheading. 
- November 5 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Rossbach: Frederick defeats the French-Imperial army under the Duc de Soubise and Prince Joseph of Saxe-Hildburghausen, forcing the French to withdraw from Saxony.
- November 22 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Breslau: An Austrian army under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine defeats the Prussian army of Wilhelm of Brunswick-Bevern, and forces the Prussians behind the Oder.
- December 5 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Leuthen: Frederick defeats Prince Charles's Austrian army, in what is generally considered the Prussian king's greatest tactical victory.
- December 6 – In Buddhist tradition, Jigme Lingpa discovers the Longchen Nyingthig terma through a meditative vision, which brings him to Boudhanath. The Longchen Nyingtig is a popular cycle of teachings in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.
- December 14 – Battle of Khresili: King Solomon I of Imereti defeats the Ottoman army and an allied faction of nobles, in what is now western Georgia.
- December 30 – James Abercrombie replaces James Mure-Campbell, 5th Earl of Loudoun as supreme commander in the American colonies.  Abercrombie is replaced himself, after failing to take the fort at Ticonderoga.
- January 1 – Swedish biologist Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné) introduces binomial nomenclature to his established system of Linnaean taxonomy, with the release of the tenth edition of his reference work Systema Naturae. . Among the first examples of his system of identifying an organism by genus and then species, Linnaeus identifies the lamprey with the name Petromyzon marinus. 
- January 20 – At Cap-Haïtien in Haiti, former slave turned rebel François Mackandal is executed by the French colonial government by being burned at the stake. 
- January 22 – Russian troops under the command of William Fermor invade East Prussia and capture Königsberg with 34,000 soldiers; although the city is later abandoned by Russia after the Seven Years' War ends, the city again comes under Russian control in 1945 during World War II and is now named Kaliningrad. 
- February 22 – A fleet of 158 British Royal Navy warships, under the command of Admiral Edward Boscawen, departs from Plymouth toward North America in an effort to conquer the French Canadian territories of New France. Many of the sailors die of nutritional deficiencies along the way, including the scurvy that kills 26 of the crew of HMS Pembroke, captained by future world explorer James Cook on his first long voyage. 
- February 23 – Jonathan Edwards, the famed English theologian who had assumed the presidency of what is now Princeton University only a week earlier, sets an example for students and faculty by publicly receiving an inoculation against smallpox.  Unfortunately, the vaccine contains live smallpox; Edwards develops the disease and dies on March 22 at the age of 54.
- March 16 – Members of the Comanche Nation loot and destroy the Spanish Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá (near present day Menard, Texas ) and kill eight of the people there, including the mission leader, Father Alonso Giraldo de Terreros. 
- March 30 – The first patent for a one-piece pencil with eraser is issued to American inventor J. Rechendorf of New York City. 
- The French build the first European settlement in what is now Erie County, at the mouth of Buffalo Creek.
- Rudjer Boscovich publishes his atomic theory, in Theoria philosophiae naturalis redacta ad unicam legem virium in nalura existentium.
- A fire destroys parts of Christiania, Norway.
- Carl Linnaeus publishes the first volume (Animalia) of the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, the starting point of modern zoological nomenclature.
- Marquis Gabriel de Lernay, a French officer captured during the Seven Years' War, establishes a military lodge in Berlin, with the help of Baron de Printzen, master of The Three Globes Lodge at Berlin, and Philipp Samuel Rosa, a disgraced former pastor.
in 1761 by Dr. Richard Lambert in the paper "A new technique of treating an aneurysm", published in the journal Medical Observations and Inquiries.  The new procedure of reconstructing a damaged artery replaces the practice of ligation that had risked the amputation of a limb or to organ failure. 
- June 26 – After the fleet finishes navigation of the St. Lawrence and arriving Île d'Orléans, British troops go ashore at France's North American territory and begin the siege of Quebec City 
- July 19 – The Great Stockholm Fire 1759 breaks out at Södermalm in Stockholm, Sweden.
- July 25 – Seven Years' War (French and Indian War): In Canada, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.
- July 26–27 – Seven Years' War (French and Indian War) – Battle of Ticonderoga: At the southern end of Lake Champlain, French forces withdraw from Fort Carillon, which is taken by the British under General Amherst, and renamed Fort Ticonderoga.
- August 1 – Battle of Minden: Anglo–Hanoverian forces under Ferdinand of Brunswick defeat the French army of the Duc de Broglie, but due to the disobedience of the English cavalry commander Lord George Sackville, the French are able to withdraw unmolested.
- August 10 – Ferdinand VI of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his half–brother Charles III. Charles resigns the thrones of Naples and Sicily to his third son, Ferdinand IV.
- November 21 – Battle of Maxen: The Austrian army of Marshal von Daun cuts off and forces the surrender of a Prussian force, under Friedrich von Finck.
- November 25 – Near East earthquakes of 1759: The second and stronger event in an earthquake doublet occurs to the east of Beirut, with a surface wave magnitude of 7.4 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), destroying all the villages in the Beqaa Valley.
- November 29 – Alamgir II, the Mughal Emperor of India, is assassinated in a conspiracy orchestrated by his Prime Minister, Imad-ul-Mulk. The Shah Alam II, a grandson of the 17th century Emperor Aurangzeb, is made the new Mughal Emperor. 
- December 6 – The Germantown Union School (now called Germantown Academy), America's oldest nonsectarian day school, is founded.
- December 31 – The Guinness Brewery is leased by Arthur Guinness in St. James's Gate, Dublin, Ireland, for the brewing of Guinness.
Related to King Aster. Friends with Magill